Formation and Growth of Clusters of Sulfur Dioxide
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Formation and growth of neutral SO2 clusters is investigated in an adiabatic-expansion setup by means of sulfur 2p (S2p) photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical modeling. The shift in S2p ionization energy between the cluster and a single molecule, i.e., IE(cluster)-IE(monomer), is recorded and used to monitor the mean cluster size over a wide range of expansion conditions. The produced clusters were shown to fall into two different size regimes. Comparison between theoretical simulations and experimental observations suggests that while the smallest clusters belong to the ultrafine particle mode and have a liquid-like structure, the larger clusters belong to the accumulation mode of fine particles and possibly have a frozen cluster core. The transition between the two size/structure regimes occurs over a narrow interval in expansion conditions and may possibly reflect a change in growth mechanism from monomer addition to growth by cluster-cluster collisions.