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dc.contributor.authorKleppe, Rune
dc.contributor.authorHerfindal, Lars
dc.contributor.authorDøskeland, Stein Ove
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-08T07:23:01Z
dc.date.available2016-08-08T07:23:01Z
dc.date.issued2015-10-22
dc.identifier.citationMarine Drugs 2015, 13(10):6505-6520eng
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1956/12478
dc.description.abstractOkadaic acid (OA) and microcystin (MC) as well as several other microbial toxins like nodularin and calyculinA are known as tumor promoters as well as inducers of apoptotic cell death. Their intracellular targets are the major serine/threonine protein phosphatases. This review summarizes mechanisms believed to be responsible for the death induction and tumor promotion with focus on the interdependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (CaM-KII). New data are presented using inhibitors of specific ROS producing enzymes to curb nodularin/MC-induced liver cell (hepatocyte) death. They indicate that enzymes of the arachidonic acid pathway, notably phospholipase A2, 5-lipoxygenase, and cyclooxygenases, may be required for nodularin/MC-induced (and presumably OA-induced) cell death, suggesting new ways to overcome at least some aspects of OA and MC toxicity.eng
dc.language.isoengeng
dc.publisherMDPIeng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/eng
dc.subjectmicrocystineng
dc.subjectokadaic acideng
dc.subjectnodularineng
dc.subjectcell deatheng
dc.subjectapoptosiseng
dc.subjectprotein phosphataseeng
dc.subjectinhibitoreng
dc.titleCell Death inducing microbial protein phosphatase inhibitors-mechanisms of actioneng
dc.typeJournal articleeng
dc.date.updated2016-04-08T11:22:42Z
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2015 by the authorseng
dc.type.versionpublishedVersioneng
bora.peerreviewedPeer reviewedeng
dc.type.documentJournal article
dc.identifier.cristinID1282795
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/md13106505eng
dc.source.issn1660-3397eng


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Attribution CC BY
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution CC BY