Exposure to preeclampsia growth from birth to late childhood dependent on child’s sex and severity of exposure: Follow-up of a nested case-control study
MetadataShow full item record
Background and objective An adverse intrauterine environment may affect offspring growth and development. Our aim was to explore whether preeclampsia (PE) exposure in utero influences growth from birth to 13 years.
Methods In a nested case-control study, 229 children were exposed to PE (mild/moderate: n = 164, severe: n = 54) and 385 were unexposed. Length/height and weight were abstracted from records at birth, 3 and 6 months, 1 and 4 years, and measured along with waist circumfer- ence and skinfolds at follow-up at 11/12 (girls/boys) and 13 years (both sexes). Associations between PE and z-scores for growth were analyzed by multiple linear and fractional polyno- mial regression with adjustment for potential confounders.
Results In boys, exposure to mild/moderate PE was positively associated with linear growth after 0.5 years, but severe PE was negatively associated with linear growth in all ages. In girls, both exposure to mild/moderate and severe PE were negatively associated with linear growth. Exposure to PE was negatively associated with weight and body mass index (BMI) during infancy, but positively associated with weight and BMI thereafter, except that boys exposed to severe PE consistently had a lower weight and BMI compared to the unexposed.