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dc.contributor.authorHegvik, Tor-Arne
dc.contributor.authorInstanes, Johanne Telnes
dc.contributor.authorHaavik, Jan
dc.contributor.authorKlungsøyr, Kari
dc.contributor.authorEngeland, Anders
dc.date.accessioned2018-08-07T13:32:11Z
dc.date.available2018-08-07T13:32:11Z
dc.date.issued2018-05
dc.identifier.citationHegvik T, Instanes JT, Haavik J, Klungsøyr K, Engeland A. Associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autoimmune diseases are modified by sex: a population-based cross-sectional study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2018;27(5):663–675eng
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1956/18026
dc.description.abstractSeveral studies have demonstrated associations between neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the immune system, including autoimmune diseases. Since ADHD and many autoimmune diseases show sex-specific properties, such associations may also differ by sex. Using Norwegian national registries, we performed a cross-sectional study based on a cohort of 2,500,118 individuals to investigate whether ADHD is associated with common autoimmune diseases. Associations between ADHD and autoimmune diseases in females and males were investigated with logistic regression and effect modification by sex was evaluated. Several subanalyses were performed. The strongest association was found between ADHD and psoriasis in females, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.46–1.68) and males, adjOR = 1.31 (1.23–1.40); p value for interaction < 0.0001. Furthermore, among females, ADHD was associated with Crohn’s disease, adjOR = 1.44 (1.16–1.79) and ulcerative colitis, adjOR = 1.28 (1.06–1.54). In contrast, males with ADHD had lower odds of Crohn’s disease, adjOR = 0.71 (0.54–0.92), in addition to a trend for lower odds of ulcerative colitis, adjOR = 0.86 (0.71–1.03); p values for interaction < 0.0001 and 0.0023, respectively. In a group of females where information on smoking and body mass index was available, adjustment for these potential mediators did not substantially alter the associations. Our findings support previously reported associations between ADHD and diseases of the immune system. The associations differ by sex, suggesting that sex-specific immune-mediated neurodevelopmental processes may be involved in the etiology of ADHD.eng
dc.language.isoengeng
dc.publisherSpringereng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0eng
dc.subjectADHDeng
dc.subjectAutoimmunityeng
dc.subjectNeuropsychiatryeng
dc.subjectComorbidityeng
dc.subjectPsoriasiseng
dc.subjectNeuroimmunologyeng
dc.titleAssociations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autoimmune diseases are modified by sex: a population-based cross-sectional studyeng
dc.typeJournal articleeng
dc.date.updated2018-03-06T14:46:09Z
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2017 The Author(s)eng
dc.type.versionpublishedVersioneng
bora.peerreviewedPeer reviewedeng
dc.type.documentJournal article
dc.identifier.cristinID1504067
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00787-017-1056-1eng
dc.source.issn1018-8827eng
dc.source.issn1435-165Xeng
dc.relation.journalEuropean Child and Adolescent Psychiatry


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