Factors explaining variation in self-esteem among persons with type 1 diabetes and elevated HbA1c
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Objectives To investigate associations between perceived autonomy support from health-care professionals, autonomy-driven motivation, diabetes self-perceived competence and self-esteem in adults (age 18–55 yrs) with suboptimally regulated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with at least one HbA1c≥8.0% (≥64 mmol/mol) during the past year, and whether these factors could predict decrease in self-esteem over time. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed, and 9 months follow-up data were collected. Data collection comprised clinical and socio-demographic variables, blood sampling (HbA1c) and self-report questionnaires; the Health Care Climate Questionnaire (HCCQ), Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ), the Perceived Competence in Diabetes Scale (PCDS), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). We fitted block-wise linear regression models to assess associations between RSES and variables of interest (HCCQ, TSRQ, PCDS, HbA1c, clinical and socio-demographic variables) and linear regression models to assess predictors of change over time. Findings In this study sample, aged 36.7 (±10.7) mean HbA1c 9.3% (±1.1), 31.5% had long-term complications and 42.7% had experienced severe hypoglycemia within the previous 12 months. In the final regression model the association between PCDS and RSES was strongly significant (B = 1.99, p<0.001) and the associations between HCCQ, TSRQ and RSES were reduced to non-significance. All predictor variables combined explained 42% of the variability of RSES (adjusted R2 = 0.423) with PCDS contributing 18% to explained variance (R-square change = 0.184, p<0.001). The strongest predictors of change in RSES over time were long-term complications (B = 2.76, p<0.001), specifically foot-related problems, and being female (B = -2.16, p = 0.002). Conclusions Perceived autonomy support, autonomy-driven motivation and diabetes self-perceived competence play a significant role in explaining self-esteem among adults with suboptimally regulated T1DM. Healthcare professionals should acknowledge self-esteem as a valuable factor in understanding the multifaceted health choices people with T1DM make. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov with identification number NCT 01317459.
CitationMohn J, Igland J, Zoffmann V, Peyrot M, Graue M. Factors explaining variation in self-esteem among persons with type 1 diabetes and elevated HbA1c. PLoS ONE. 2018
Copyright 2018 Mohn et al.