Marine ω-3, vitamin D levels, disease outcome and periodontal status in rheumatoid arthritis outpatients
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Objectives: Marine ω-3 fatty acids (FAs) and Vitamin D (VitD) are reportedly capable of down-regulating inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease. This study was undertaken to relate marine FA and VitD status to RA disease status and periodontal conditions.
Methods: RA outpatients (age ≥35 y) were consecutively recruited. Rheumatologic clinical data were collected and periodontal status obtained. A food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate fish and supplement intake. FA profiles in whole-blood and serum VitD levels were determined.
Results: A total of 78 RA patients (age 57 ± 12 y, disease duration 15 ± 11 y) were included, 58% had active RA. Periodontitis was diagnosed in 82% of the patients, 18% had severe periodontitis. Seropositivity for rheumatoid factor and/or anticitrullinated protein antibodies was related to higher prevalence of periodontitis (P = 0.008). Seafood intake in accordance with nutritional recommendations was associated with better RA disease outcome (largest P = 0.008). An ω-3 index >8, present in 14% of the patients, correlated with a more desirable patient global health assessment scored on a visual analog scale (VAS; P = 0.004), lower periodontal probing depth (PD; P = 0.021), and ω-3 supplementation (P = 0.001). Serum VitD levels >50 nmol/L were found in 89%, of these 48% had VitD levels ≥75 nmol/L, no differences were found for RA disease activity and periodontal measurements.
Conclusions: Seropositive RA patients had a higher prevalence of periodontitis than seronegative patients. An ω-3 index >8 was related to ω-3 supplementation and more desirable VAS and lower PD. VitD status was satisfactory for most patients and was not associated with differences in RA severity or periodontal diagnosis.