Impact of age on excess risk of coronary heart disease in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia
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Objective: The primary objective was to study the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and compare with the risk in the general population.
Methods: Patients with an FH mutation but without prior AMI (n=3071) and without prior CHD (n=2795) were included in the study sample during 2001–2009. We obtained data on all AMI and CHD hospitalisations in Norway. We defined incident cases as first time hospitalisation or out-of-hospital death due to AMI or CHD. We estimated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% CIs with indirect standardisation using incidence rates for the total Norwegian population stratified by sex, calendar year and 1 year age groups as reference rates.
Results: SIRs for AMI (95% CIs) were highest in the age group 25–39 years; 7.5 (3.7 to 14.9) in men and 13.6 (5.1 to 36.2) in women and decreased with age to 0.9 (0.4 to 2.1) in men and 1.8 (0.9 to 3.7) in women aged 70–79 years. Similarly, SIRs for CHD were highest among patients 25–39 years old; 11.1 (7.1–17.5) in men and 17.3 (9.6–31.2) in women and decreased 2.4 (1.4–4.2) in men and 3.2 (1.5–7.2) in women at age 70–79. For all age groups, combined SIRs for CHD were 4.2 (3.6–5.0) in men and 4.7 (3.9–5.7) in women.
Conclusion: Patients with FH are at severely increased risk of AMI and CHD compared with the general population. The highest excess risk was in the youngest group aged 25–39 years, in both sexes.