Balance functions of (un)identified hadrons in Pb–Pb, p–Pb, and pp collisions at the LHC
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In ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, correlations of particles with opposite quantum numbers provide insight into quark production mechanisms and time scales, collective motion, and re-scattering in the hadronic phase. The longitudinal and azimuthal widths of balance functions for charged kaons and charged pions are used to examine the two-wave quark production model proposed to explain quark-antiquark production within the QGP, which predicts a large increase in up and down quark pairs relative to strange quark pairs around the time of hadronization. Balance functions are also analyzed in small collision systems such as p–Pb and pp to study fragmentation effects and possible collective effects in high-multiplicity events. A comprehensive set of balance functions has been measured using the ALICE detector, including results for unidentified hadrons in Pb–Pb and p–Pb collisions at , for charged pions in Pb–Pb collisions at , p–Pb collisions at and pp collisions at , and for charged kaons in Pb–Pb collisions at . The first balance function yield results are also presented.
CitationPan, Acharya S, Acosta FT, Adamová D, Adolfsson J, Aggarwal MM, Aglieri Rinella G, Agnello M, Agrawal N, Ahammed Z, Alme J, Altenkaemper L, Djuvsland Ø, Ersdal MR, Fionda FMC, Nystrand J, Rehman AU, Røhrich D, Tambave GJ, Ullaland K, Wagner B, Zhou Z, Arsene IC, Bätzing P, Dordic O, Lardeux AX, Lindal S, Mahmood SM, Malik QW, Richter M, Røed K, Skaali TB, Tveter TS, Wikne JC, Zhao C, Hetland KF, Kileng B, Nesbø SV, Storetvedt M, Helstrup H, Langøy R, Lien JA, Ahn SU, Aiola S, Akindinov A, Al-Turany M, Alam SN, Albuquerque DSD, Aleksandrov D, Alessandro B, ALICE C. Balance functions of (un)identified hadrons in Pb–Pb, p–Pb, and pp collisions at the LHC. Nuclear Physics A. 2019;982:315-318
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