|dc.identifier.isbn||978-82-308-0776-7 (print version)||eng
|dc.description.abstract||This thesis is based on a study on health and work environment among the Royal
Norwegian Navy personnel.
Background: The health among navy personnel is of concern both for the sake of the personnel
themselves and from the perspective that healthy navy personnel are necessary for a
well functioning navy defending our country. As there had been general concerns
about risk factors for the Navy employees’ health, the Chief of the Naval Staff decided
in January 2001 to establish the project Health, Safety and Environment in the Navy.
The goal of the project was to give a basis for further action regarding the Health,
Safety and Environment work within the Navy. As one part of this project, a
questionnaire survey of the general work environment and the health of the employees
was carried out by the University of Bergen. This thesis is built upon data from the
survey and includes four studies.
Aims of the studies: The aim of study I was to compare the health status among naval officers with that of
the general population of Norway. The study also investigated the association between
health-related quality of life and military officers’ rank.
The aims of study II were to determine the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal
disorders (MSD) among military personnel and civilians in the Navy; and to assess the
association between physical activity at work and at leisure and MSD.
The aim of study III was to study the relationship between experiencing and coping
with life-threatening events and self-perceived health.
The aim of study IV was to study whether psychosocial factors at work were associated
with bullying when observed by individuals, or observed by groups of individuals in
different departments, or both. The aim was also to see whether these associations
changed when data from the bullied were excluded.
Material and methods: The data were collected in a cross-sectional study by using a questionnaire. In all,
3878 Navy employees were eligible for the study.
In study I, we studied 1316 male military officers from 25 to 62 years of age. We
studied their health status by using the SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36) scores
standardized for sex and years of age. The data from our study population were
compared with data acquired from the Norwegian Social Science Data Service of the
general Norwegian population. In the comparison, adjustments for being at work and
educational level were made. To study the association between military rank and
health status the mean raw scores for the eight SF-36 subscales were used.
In study II, data from questions about MSD, physical activity and background
demographics from the 2265 military and civilian workers 18 to 70 years old were
used. The prevalence of MSD in nine body parts was compared between the military
and civilian workers.
In study III, the 2265 military and navy employees with different types of work on
ships and ashore participated. We studied the relationship between the number of lifethreatening
events, occupational status, sex, age, and the extent of putting these events
behind. The SF-36 was used as a measure of self-perceived health. The possible trends
between the degree of putting the life-threatening events behind oneself and each of
the eight SF-36 scales were calculated.
In study IV, 1657 military personnel were studied both as individuals and as groups at
97 departments. Self-experienced and observed bullying as well as scores for
psychosocial scales using the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and
Social Factors at Work; QPSNordic were calculated both for the individuals and as a
mean for each Navy department. The associations between the psychosocial scales and
the occurrence of bullying at the individual and department level were studied. The
analyses were repeated excluding those being bullied. Results: In study I, we found that the naval officers in the Navy have a similar health status to
the working population in Norway with similar educational level. Military rank was
not independently associated with the health status among the naval officers.
In study II, we found that the civilian personnel had a higher prevalence of MSD than
military personnel in nine body parts, but only in the neck and lower back when
adjusted for years of age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, smoking, education
and physical stressors. Higher physical activity was associated with less reported MSD
for six body parts; the neck, shoulders, hands, upper back, lower back and hips.
In study III, we found that the military personnel seemed more likely to have put the
life-threatening events behind than the civilians. The extent of putting the events
behind oneself was clearly correlated to self-perceived health as measured by the SF-
36 scales bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional and
mental health, and these associations had linear appearances. The personnel who had
“not at all” put the events behind had clearly lower outcomes on these scales compared
to those who had not experienced life-threatening events.
In study IV, we found that the psychosocial work environment as measured by the
group and organizational QPSNordic scales fair leadership, innovative climate and
inequality were associated with high occurrence of bullying at the individual and at the
department level; meaning that unequal treatment and lack of fair leadership and
innovative climate were associated with high occurrence of bullying. Repeating the
analyses excluding those being bullied changed the estimates minimally.
The population of male military officers had a similar health-related quality of life as
the Norwegian population with the same educational level. In addition, this personnel
group had a lower prevalence of MSD compared to the civilian personnel. However,
this does not preclude that groups of military personnel have health problems. We
found that those who had not been able to put the life-threatening events behind had an associated poorer self-perceived health as measured by the SF-36 compared to those
that had no such events. In addition, we found a group of military personnel that were
bullied, which affects health negatively, and others that observed bullying, which may
have negative effects on health. For the occurrence of bullying the work environment
seemed to play an important role.
More physical activity was associated with lower prevalence of MSD for both military
and civilian personnel. Although the civilian personnel had put the life-threatening
events behind to a smaller extent than the military, those who had put the events
behind had better self-perceived health than those who had not put them behind.||en
|dc.publisher||The University of Bergen||eng
|dc.relation.haspart||Paper I: Military Medicine 172(8), Mageroy, N.; Riise, T.; Johnsen, B. H.; Moen, B. E., Health-Related Quality of Life in the Royal Norwegian Navy: Does Officer Rank Matter?, pp. 835-842. Copyright 2007 Association of Military Surgeons of U.S. Full text not available in BORA due to publisher restrictions.||eng
|dc.relation.haspart||Paper II: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 8(56), Morken, T.; Mageroy, N.; Moen, B. E., Physical activity is associated with a low prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the Royal Norwegian Navy: a cross sectional study. Copyright 2007 Morken et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Published version. The published version is also available at: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-8-56" target="_blank"> http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-8-56</a>||eng
|dc.relation.haspart||Paper III: Journal of Psychosomatic Research 65(6), Mageroy, N.; Riise, T.; Johnsen, B. H.; Moen, B. E., Coping with life-threatening events was associated with better self-perceived health in a naval cross-sectional study, pp. 611-618. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Inc. Full text not available in BORA due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.03.017" target="_blank">http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.03.017</a>||eng
|dc.relation.haspart||Paper IV: Journal of Psychosomatic Research 66(4), Mageroy, N.; Lau, B.; Riise, T.; Moen, B. E., Association of psychosocial factors and bullying at individual and department levels among naval military personnel, pp. 343-351. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. Full text not available in BORA due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.10.009" target="_blank"> http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.10.009</a>||eng
|dc.title||Health among Navy personnel. A cross-sectional study in the Royal Norwegian Navy||eng
|dc.subject.nsi||VDP::Medisinske Fag: 700::Helsefag: 800||nob