Testing Fluorescence Lifetime Standards using Two-Photon Excitation and Time-Domain Instrumentation: Rhodamine B, Coumarin 6 and Lucifer Yellow
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Having good information about fluorescence lifetime standards is essential for anyone performing lifetime experiments. Using lifetime standards in fluorescence spectroscopy is often regarded as a straightforward process, however, many earlier reports are limited in terms of lifetime concentration dependency, solvents and other technical aspects. We have investigated the suitability of the fluorescent dyes rhodamine B, coumarin 6, and lucifer yellow as lifetime standards, especially to be used with two-photon excitation measurements in the time-domain. We measured absorption and emission spectra for the fluorophores to determine which wavelengths we should use for the excitation and an appropriate detector range. We also measured lifetimes for different concentrations, ranging from 10−2– 10−6 M, in both water, ethanol and methanol solutions. We observed that rhodamine B lifetimes depend strongly on concentration. Coumarin 6 provided the most stable lifetimes, with a negligible dependency on concentration and solvent. Lucifer yellow lifetimes were also found to depend little with concentration. Finally, we found that a mix of two fluorophores (rhodamine B/coumarin 6, rhodamine B/lucifer yellow, and coumarin 6/lucifer yellow) all yielded very similar lifetimes from a double-exponential decay as the separate lifetimes measured from a single-exponential decay. All lifetime measurements were made using two-photon excitation and obtaining lifetime data in the time-domain using time-correlated single-photon counting.
CitationJournal of Fluorescence
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