Now showing items 21-40 of 40

    • The incidence, aetiology, and adverse clinical consequences of less severe diarrhoeal episodes among infants and children residing in low-income and middle-income countries: a 12-month case-control study as a follow-on to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) 

      Kotloff, Karen L.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Blackwelder, William C.; Wu, Yukun; Farag, Tamer H.; Panchalingham, Sandra; Sow, Samba O.; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K.M.; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Saha, Debasish; Alonso, Pedro L.; Tamboura, Boubou; Sanogo, Doh; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Manna, Byomkesh; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kanungo, Suman; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Qureshi, Shahida; Quadri, Farheen; Hossain, Anowar; Das, Sumon K.; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir; Mandomando, Inacio; Acácio, Sozinho; Biswas, Kousick; Tennant, Sharon M.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Nataro, James Paul; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Levine, Myron M. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019-05)
      Background Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) has described the incidence, ...
    • Is vaccination coverage a good indicator of age-appropriate vaccination? A prospective study from Uganda 

      Fadnes, Lars Thore; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Tumwine, James K.; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2011-04-27)
      Background: Timely vaccination is important to protect children from common infectious diseases. We assessed vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage as well as coverage of vitamin A supplementation in a Ugandan ...
    • Malaria Parasitaemia among Infants and Its Association with Breastfeeding Peer Counselling and Vitamin A Supplementation: A Secondary Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Trial 

      Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nankunda, Jolly; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tumwine, James K. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2011-07-07)
      Background: Malaria is the second highest contributor to the disease burden in Africa and there is a need to identify low cost prevention strategies. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of malaria ...
    • Maternal education is associated with vaccination status of infants less than 6 months in Eastern Uganda: a cohort study 

      Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Tumwine, James K.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; PROMISE-EBF Study group (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2010-12-15)
      Background: Despite provision of free childhood vaccinations, less than half of all Ugandan infants are fully vaccinated. This study compares women with some secondary schooling to those with only primary schooling with ...
    • Microbiota that affect risk for shigellosis in children in low-income countries 

      Lindsay, Brianna; Oundo, Joseph O.; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Antonio, Martin; Tamboura, Boubou; Walker, Alan W.; Paulson, Joseph N.; Parkhill, Julian; Omore, Richard; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Das, Suman Kumar; Ikumapayi, Usman Nurudeen; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Sanogo, Doh; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O.; Farag, Tamer H.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen; Magder, Laurence S.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Pop, Mihai; Nataro, James Paul; Stine, Oscar Colin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015)
      Pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract exist within a vast population of microbes. We examined associations between pathogens and composition of gut microbiota as they relate to Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia ...
    • Neonatal sepsis at Mulago national referral hospital in Uganda: Etiology, antimicrobial resistance, associated factors and case fatality risk 

      Tumuhamye, Josephine; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Bwanga, Freddie; Ndeezi, Grace; Mukunya, David; Napyo, Agnes; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tumwine, James K (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Background Sepsis is the third most common cause of death among neonates, with about 225,000 newborns dying every year globally. Data concerning the microbial etiology of neonatal sepsis and antimicrobial resistance ...
    • A New Human Challenge Model for Testing Heat-Stable Toxin-Based Vaccine Candidates for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Diarrhea - Dose Optimization, Clinical Outcomes, and CD4+ T Cell Responses 

      Sakkestad, Sunniva Todnem; Steinsland, Hans; Skrede, Steinar; Lillebø, Kristine; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Guttormsen, Anne Berit; Zavialov, Anton; Paavilainen, Sari; Søyland, Hanne; Sævik, Marianne; Rykkje Heien, Astrid; Gjerde Tellevik, Marit; Barry, Eileen; Langeland, Nina; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Hanevik, Kurt (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019-10-30)
      Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a common cause of diarrheal illness in young children and travelers. There is yet no licensed broadly protective vaccine against ETEC. One promising vaccine development strategy ...
    • Perinatal Mortality in Eastern Uganda: A Community Based Prospective Cohort Study 

      Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nankunda, Jolly; Sommerfelt, Halvor (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2011-05-09)
      Background: To achieve a child mortality reduction according to millennium development goal 4, it is necessary to considerably reduce neonatal mortality. We report stillbirth and early neonatal mortality risks as well as ...
    • Perinatal mortality in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study 

      Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Meda, Nicolas; Zabsonré, Emmanuel; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Cousens, Simon; Tylleskär, Thorkild (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2010-08-17)
      Background: There is a scarcity of reliable data on perinatal mortality (PNM) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The PROMISEEBF trial, during which we promoted exclusive breastfeeding, gave us the opportunity to describe the epidemiology ...
    • Predictors of Duration and Treatment Failure of Severe Pneumonia in Hospitalized Young Nepalese Children 

      Basnet, Sudha; Sharma, Arun; Mathisen, Maria; Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Ghimire, Ram Kumar; Shrestha, Dhiraj Man; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Strand, Tor A. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015-03-23)
      Background. Pneumonia in young children is still the most frequent cause of death in developing countries. We aimed to identify predictors for recovery and treatment failure in children hospitalized with severe pneumonia. ...
    • Predictors of time to recovery in infants with probable serious bacterial infection 

      Singh, Prashant; Wadhwa, Nitya; Lodha, Rakesh; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Aneja, Satinder; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Chandra, Jagdish; Rath, Bimbadhar; Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Kumari, Mohini; Saini, Saviti; Kabra, Sushil K.; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Strand, Tor A. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015-04-24)
      Introduction: Serious bacterial infections continue to be an important cause of death and illness among infants in developing countries. Time to recovery could be considered a surrogate marker of severity of the infection. ...
    • Prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among young children with acute diarrhea in Bhaktapur, Nepal 

      Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Strand, Tor A. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015-07-21)
      Iron deficiency anemia is still common in children under five years of age and may impair their growth and cognitive development. Diarrhea is the second most common reason for seeking medical care for young children in ...
    • Proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain TW11681 in stools of experimentally infected human volunteers 

      Vedøy, Oda Barth; Hanevik, Kurt; Sakkestad, Sunniva Todnem; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Steinsland, Hans (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018-10-16)
      Background: As part of the efort to develop an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) human challenge model for testing new heat-stable toxin (ST)-based vaccine candidates, a controlled human infection model study based ...
    • Prolonged and persistent diarrhoea is not restricted to children with acute malnutrition: an observational study in Ethiopia 

      Zangenberg, Mike; Johansen, Øystein Haarklau; Abdissa, Alemseged; Eshetu, Beza; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Anders; Friis, Henrik; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      Objectives: To assess the prevalence of prolonged and persistent diarrhoea, to estimate their co‐occurrence with acute malnutrition and association with demographic and clinical factors. Methods: Case–control study where ...
    • Risk Factors for Extended Duration of Acute Diarrhea in Young Children 

      Strand, Tor A.; Sharma, Pushpa R.; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Sommerfelt, Halvor (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012-05-08)
      Objective and Background: We sought to identify predictors of extended duration of diarrhea in young children, which contributes substantially to the nearly 1 1/2 million annual diarrheal deaths globally. Methods: We ...
    • RNA viruses in community-acquired childhood pneumonia in semi-urban Nepal; a cross-sectional study 

      Mathisen, Maria; Strand, Tor A.; Sharma, Biswa N.; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Basnet, Sudha; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Hvidsten, Dag; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Sommerfelt, Halvor (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2009-07-27)
      Background: Pneumonia is among the main causes of illness and death in children <5 years of age. There is a need to better describe the epidemiology of viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in developing countries. ...
    • Vaccination coverage and timeliness in three South African areas: a prospective study 

      Fadnes, Lars Thore; Jackson, Debra; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S.; Zembe, Wanga; Sanders, David; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tylleskär, Thorkild (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2011-05-27)
      Background: Timely vaccination is important to induce adequate protective immunity. We measured vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage in three geographical areas in South Africa. Methods: This study used vaccination ...
    • Vaginal colonisation of women in labour with potentially pathogenic bacteria: A cross sectional study at three primary health care facilities in Central Uganda 

      Tumuhamye, Josephine; Steinsland, Hans; Tumwine, James K.; Namugga, Olive; Mukunya, David; Bwanga, Freddie; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Nankabirwa, Victoria (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-01-31)
      Background: Potentially pathogenic bacteria that colonise the lower genital tract of women in labour can be passed to the baby during birth. While many babies become colonised with these bacteria after delivery, a few ...
    • "We shall count it as a part of kyogero": acceptability and considerations for scale up of single dose chlorhexidine for umbilical cord care in Central Uganda 

      Mukunya, David; Haaland, Marte Emilie Sandvik; Tumwine, James K.; Ndeezi, Grace; Namugga, Olive; Tumuhamye, Josephine; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Rujumba, Joseph; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Moland, Karen Marie; Nankabirwa, Victoria (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018-12-04)
      Background: Cleansing the umbilical cord with chlorhexidine reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality, particularly in communities where newborn deaths and home births are common. As a result, the World Health Organization ...
    • When is a randomised controlled trial health equity relevant? Development and validation of a conceptual framework 

      Jull, Janet E.G.; Whitehead, Margaret; Petticrew, Mark; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Gough, David; Petkovic, Jennifer; Volmink, Jimmy; Weijer, Charles; Taljaard, Monica; Edwards, Sarah Jane L.; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Cookson, Richard; McGowan, Jessie L.; Lyddiatt, Anne; Boyer, Yvonne; Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Armstrong, Rebecca; White, Howard; Yoganathan, Manosila; Pantoja, Tomás; Shea, Beverley J.; Pottie, Kevin; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Baird, Sarah; Robberstad, Bjarne; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Asada, Yukiko; Wells, George A.; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-09-25)
      Background Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health ...