• Arctic amplification under global warming of 1.5 and 2 °C in NorESM1-Happi 

      Graff, Lise Seland; Iversen, Trond; Bethke, Ingo; Debernard, Jens Boldingh; Seland, Øyvind; Bentsen, Mats; Kirkevåg, Alf; Li, Camille; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      Differences between a 1.5 and 2.0 ∘C warmer climate than 1850 pre-industrial conditions are investigated using a suite of uncoupled (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project; AMIP), fully coupled, and slab-ocean experiments ...
    • Can we use ice sheet reconstructions to constrain meltwater for deglacial simulations? 

      Bethke, Ingo; Li, Camille; Nisancioglu, Kerim Hestnes (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012)
      Freshwater pulses from melting ice sheets are thought to be important for driving deglacial climate variability. This study investigates challenges in simulating and understanding deglacial climate evolution within this ...
    • Equilibrium simulations of Marine Isotope Stage 3 climate 

      Guo, Chuncheng; Nisancioglu, Kerim Hestnes; Bentsen, Mats; Bethke, Ingo; Zhang, Zhongshi (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019-06-26)
      An equilibrium simulation of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) climate with boundary conditions characteristic of Greenland Interstadial 8 (GI-8; 38 kyr BP) is carried out with the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). A ...
    • Impact of ocean and sea ice initialisation on seasonal prediction skill in the Arctic 

      Kimmritz, Madlen; Counillon, Francois; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Bethke, Ingo; Keenlyside, Noel; Ogawa, Fumiaki; Wang, Yiguo (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      There is a growing demand for skillful prediction systems in the Arctic. Using the Norwegian Climate Prediction Model (NorCPM) that combines the fully-coupled Norwegian Earth System Model and the Ensemble Kalman filter, ...
    • Ocean Biogeochemical Predictions—Initialization and Limits of Predictability 

      Fransner, Filippa; Counillon, Francois; Bethke, Ingo; Tjiputra, Jerry; Samuelsen, Annette; Nummelin, Aleksi; Olsen, Are (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Predictions of ocean biogeochemistry, such as primary productivity and CO2 uptake, would help to understand the changing marine environment and the global climate. There is an emerging number of studies where initialization ...
    • Ocean biogeochemistry in the Norwegian Earth System Model version 2 (NorESM2) 

      Tjiputra, Jerry; Schwinger, Jörg; Bentsen, Mats; Morée, Anne; Gao, Shuang; Bethke, Ingo; Heinze, Christoph; Goris, Nadine; Gupta, Alok Kumar; He, Yan-Chun; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Seland, Øyvind; Schulz, Michael (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      The ocean carbon cycle is a key player in the climate system through its role in regulating the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and other processes that alter the Earth's radiative balance. In the second version ...
    • On the recent time history and forcing of the inflow of Atlantic Water to the Arctic Mediterranean 

      Nilsen, Jan Even Øie; Hátún, Hjalmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Bethke, Ingo; Laurantin, Olivier; Gao, Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Furevik, Tore (Extended Abstract for The ACIA International Scientific Symposium on Climate Change in the Arctic;, Conference object, 2004)
    • Overview of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) and key climate response of CMIP6 DECK, historical, and scenario simulations 

      Seland, Øyvind; Bentsen, Mats; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Toniazzo, Thomas; Gjermundsen, Ada; Graff, Lise Seland; Debernard, Jens Boldingh; Gupta, Alok Kumar; He, Yan-Chun; Kirkevåg, Alf; Schwinger, Jörg; Tjiputra, Jerry; Aas, Kjetil Schanke; Bethke, Ingo; Fan, Yuanchao; Griesfeller, Jan; Grini, Alf; Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Karset, Inger Helene H.; Landgren, Oskar Andreas; Liakka, Johan; Moseid, Kine Onsum; Nummelin, Aleksi; Spensberger, Clemens; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Zhongshi; Heinze, Christoph; Iversen, Trond; Schulz, Michael (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-12)
      The second version of the coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) is presented and evaluated. NorESM2 is based on the second version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM2) and shares with CESM2 the computer ...
    • Seasonal-to-decadal predictions with the ensemble kalman filter and the Norwegian earth System Model: A twin experiment 

      Counillon, Francois; Bethke, Ingo; Keenlyside, Noel; Bentsen, Mats; Bertino, Laurent; Zheng, Fei (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-03-10)
      Here, we firstly demonstrate the potential of an advanced flow dependent data assimilation method for performing seasonal-to-decadal prediction and secondly, reassess the use of sea surface temperature (SST) for initialisation ...
    • Simulated Mass, Heat and Freshwater Budgets of the Artic Mediterranean - Present and Future 

      Bethke, Ingo (Master thesis, 2004)
      The majority of recent climate forecast studies suggest a dramatic thinning of the Arctic multi year ice and eventually the disappearing of all summer ice within just a few decades. Moreover, in the maritime Arctic a large ...
    • Towards a more saline North Atlantic and a fresher Arctic under global warming 

      Bethke, Ingo; Furevik, Tore; Drange, Helge (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2006-11-14)
      Most atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs) forced with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations predict enhanced atmospheric moisture transports to the high northern latitudes. Together with melting of Arctic ...