• The asymmetric geospace as displayed during the geomagnetic storm on 17 August 2001 

      Østgaard, Nikolai; Reistad, Jone Peter; Tenfjord, Paul; Laundal, Karl Magnus; Rexer, Theresa; Haaland, Stein; Snekvik, Kristian; Hesse, Michael; Milan, Stephen Eric; Ohma, Anders (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018-11-29)
      Previous studies have shown that conjugate auroral features are displaced in the two hemispheres when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a transverse (Y) component. It has also been shown that a BY component is ...
    • Birkeland current effects on high-latitude ground magnetic field perturbations 

      Laundal, Karl Magnus; Haaland, Stein; Lehtinen, Nikolai; Gjerløv, Jesper; Østgaard, Nikolai; Tenfjord, Paul; Reistad, Jone Peter; Snekvik, Kristian; Milan, Steve; Ohtani, Shin-ichi; Anderson, Brian J. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015-09-18)
      Magnetic perturbations on ground at high latitudes are directly associated only with the divergence-free component of the height-integrated horizontal ionospheric current, J⊥,df. Here we show how J⊥,df can be expressed as ...
    • Characteristics of the flank magnetopause: Cluster observations 

      Haaland, Stein; Reistad, Jone Peter; Tenfjord, Paul; Gjerloev, Jesper W.; Maes, Lukas; deKeyser, Johan; Maggiolo, Romain; Anekallu, Chrandrasehkar; Dorville, Nicolas (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-11)
      The magnetopause is a current sheet forming the boundary between the geomagnetic field on one side and the shocked solar wind on the other side. This paper discusses properties of the low-latitude dawn and dusk flanks of ...
    • Characteristics of the Flank Magnetopause: MMS Results 

      Haaland, Stein; Paschmann, Götz; Oieroset, M; Phan, Tai D.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Fuselier, Stephen; COnstantinescu, Vlad; Eriksson, Stefan; Trattner, Karlheinz J.; Fadanelli, Sid; Tenfjord, Paul; Lavraud, Benoit; Norgren, Astrid Elisabet Cecilia; Eastwood, Jonathan P.; Hietala, Heli; Burch, J (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      We have used a large number of magnetopause crossings by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to investigate macroscopic properties of this current sheet, with emphasis on the flanks of the magnetopause. Macroscopic ...
    • Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in an Asymmetric Oxygen Density Configuration 

      Kolstø, Håkon Midthun; Hesse, Michael; Norgren, Astrid Elisabet Cecilia; Tenfjord, Paul; Spinnangr, Susanne Flø; Kwagala, Norah Kaggwa (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Combined with the magnetic field, the distribution of charged particles in the inflow region is expected to control the rate of magnetic reconnection. This paper investigates how the reconnection process is altered by a ...
    • Dayside and nightside magnetic field responses at 780 km altitude to dayside reconnection 

      Snekvik, Kristian; Østgaard, Nikolai; Tenfjord, Paul; Reistad, Jone Peter; Laundal, Karl Magnus; Milan, Stephen Eric; Haaland, Stein (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-02)
      During southward interplanetary magnetic field, dayside reconnection will drive the Dungey cycle in the magnetosphere, which is manifested as a two‐cell convection pattern in the ionosphere. We address the response of the ...
    • Dynamic effects of restoring footpoint symmetry on closed magnetic field lines 

      Reistad, Jone Peter; Østgaard, Nikolai; Tenfjord, Paul; Laundal, Karl Magnus; Snekvik, Kristian; Haaland, Stein; Milan, Steve; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Frey, H. U.; Grokott, A. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016-05-05)
      Here we present an event where simultaneous global imaging of the aurora from both hemispheres reveals a large longitudinal shift of the nightside aurora of about 3 h, being the largest relative shift reported on from ...
    • Electron Acceleration and Thermalization at Magnetotail Separatrices 

      Norgren, Astrid Elisabet Cecilia; Hesse, Michael; Graham, Daniel B.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.; Tenfjord, Paul; Vaivads, Andris; Steinvall, Konrad; Xu, Yin; Gershman, Daniel J; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Burch, James L (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      In this study we use the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission to investigate the electron acceleration and thermalization occurring along the magnetic reconnection separatrices in the magnetotail. We find that initially cold ...
    • Estimating the Rate of Cessation of Magnetospheric Activity in AMPERE Field‐Aligned Currents 

      Moretto, T; Hesse, Michael; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Tenfjord, Paul (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018-12)
      The decay of magnetospheric activity when driving is turned off (to a minimum) was measured in total field‐aligned current estimates from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) ...
    • High‐density magnetospheric He+ at the dayside magnetopause and its effect on magnetic reconnection 

      Fuselier, Stephen A.; Haaland, Stein; Tenfjord, Paul; Paschmann, G; Toledo-Redondo, S; Malaspina, D; Kim, M.J.; Trattner, K.J.; Petrinec, S. M.; Giles, B. L.; Goldstein, J; Burch, J. L.; Strangeway, R. J. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission are used to quantify the maximum effect of magnetospheric H+ and He+ on dayside magnetopause reconnection. A data base of current-sheet crossings from the first ...
    • High‐density O+ in Earth's outer magnetosphere and its effect on dayside magnetopause magnetic reconnection 

      Fuselier, SA; Mukherjee, J; Denton, MH; Petrinec, SM; Trattner, K.J.; Toledo-Redondo, S; Andre, M; Aunai, N; Chappell, Charles Richard; Glocer, Alex; Haaland, S.; Hesse, Michael; Kistler, LM; Lavraud, B; Li, WY; Moore, T. E.; Graham, D; Tenfjord, Paul; Dargent, J.; Vines, Sarah K.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Burch, J. L. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The warm plasma cloak is a source of magnetospheric plasma that contain significant O+. When the O+ density in the magnetosphere near the magnetopause is >0.2 cm‐3 and the H+ density is <1.5 cm‐3, then O+ dominates the ...
    • How the IMF By induces a By component in the closed magnetosphere and how it leads to asymmetric currents and convection patterns in the two hemispheres 

      Tenfjord, Paul; Østgaard, Nikolai; Snekvik, Kristian; Laundal, Karl Magnus; Reistad, Jone Peter; Haaland, Stein; Milan, Steve (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015-11-12)
      We used the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetohydrodynamics model to study the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component on the coupling between the solar wind and magnetosphere-ionosphere system. ...
    • The Impact of Oxygen on the Reconnection Rate 

      Tenfjord, Paul; Hesse, Michael; Norgren, Astrid Elisabet Cecilia; Spinnangr, Susanne Flø; Kolstø, Håkon Midthun (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019-05-29)
      We investigate the role of a background oxygen population in magnetic reconnection, using particle‐in‐cell simulations. We run several simulations, with different initial oxygen temperatures and densities, to understand ...
    • The impact of sunlight on high-latitude equivalent currents 

      Laundal, Karl Magnus; Gjerløv, Jesper; Østgaard, Nikolai; Reistad, Jone Peter; Haaland, Stein; Snekvik, Kristian; Tenfjord, Paul; Ohtani, Shin-ichi; Milan, Steve (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016-03)
      Ground magnetic field measurements can be mathematically related to an overhead ionospheric equivalent current. In this study we look in detail at how the global equivalent current, calculated using more than 30 years of ...
    • Intensity asymmetries in the dusk sector of the poleward auroral oval due to IMF Bx 

      Reistad, Jone Peter; Østgaard, Nikolai; Laundal, Karl Magnus; Haaland, Stein; Tenfjord, Paul; Snekvik, Kristian; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Milan, Steve (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-12)
      In the exploration of global-scale features of the Earth's aurora, little attention has been given to the radial component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). This study investigates the global auroral response in ...
    • Interaction of Cold Streaming Protons with the Reconnection Process 

      Tenfjord, Paul; Hesse, Michael; Norgren, Astrid Elisabet Cecilia; Spinnangr, Susanne Flø; Kolstø, Håkon Midthun; Kwagala, Norah Kaggwa (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      We employ a 2.5D particle-in-cell simulation to study a scenario where the reconnection process captures cold streaming protons. As soon as the tailward streaming protons become involved, they contribute to the overall ...
    • Interplanetary Magnetic Field Bx Component Influence on Horizontal and Field-Aligned Currents in the Ionosphere 

      Laundal, Karl Magnus; Reistad, Jone Peter; Finlay, Christopher C.; Østgaard, Nikolai; Tenfjord, Paul; Snekvik, Kristian; Ohma, Anders (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018-05)
      Statistical analyses have shown that the sunward component of the interplanetary magnetic field, Bx (Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric), moderately but significantly affects the auroral intensity. These observations have ...
    • Mass‐loading the Earth's dayside magnetopause boundary layer and its effect on magnetic reconnection 

      Fuselier, Stephen; Trattner, K.J.; Petrinec, Steve M.; Denton, Mike; Toledo, Sergio P.A.; Andrè, M.; Aunai, N; Chappell, Charles Richard; Glocer, Alex; Haaland, Stein; Hesse, Michael; Kistler, Lynn M.; Li, Wenya; Moore, T. E.; Graham, Daniel B.; Alm, Love; Tenfjord, Paul; Dargen, Jeremy; Vines, Sarah; Nykyri, K.; Burch, James L; Strangeway, Robert J. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      When the interplanetary magnetic field is northward for a period of time, O+ from the high‐latitude ionosphere escapes along reconnected magnetic field lines into the dayside magnetopause boundary layer. Dual‐lobe reconnection ...
    • MMS Observations of Multiscale Hall Physics in the Magnetotail 

      Alm, Love; André, Mats; Graham, Daniel B.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.; Vaivads, Andris; Chappell, Charles Richard; Dargent, Jérémy; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Haaland, Stein; Lavraud, Benoit; Li, Wenya; Tenfjord, Paul; Toledo-Redondo, Sergio; Vines, Sarah K. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      We present Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) observations of Hall physics in the magnetotail, which compared to dayside Hall physics is a relatively unexplored topic. The plasma consists of electrons, moderately cold ...
    • A new Look at the Electron Diffusion Region in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection 

      Hesse, Michael; Norgren, Astrid Elisabet Cecilia; Tenfjord, Paul; James L., Burch; Liu, Yi‐Hsin; Bessho, Naoki; Wang, Shan; Kolstø, Håkon Midthun; Spinnangr, Susanne Flø; Ergun, Robert E; Moretto, Therese; Kwagala, Norah Kaggwa (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      A new look at the structure of the electron diffusion region in collision less magnetic reconnection is presented. The research is based on a particle-in-cell simulation of asymmetric magnetic reconnection, which includes ...