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dc.contributor.authorLund-Blix, Nicolai Andre
dc.contributor.authorTapia, German
dc.contributor.authorMårild, Karl Staffan
dc.contributor.authorBrantsæter, Anne Lise
dc.contributor.authorNjølstad, Pål Rasmus
dc.contributor.authorJoner, Geir
dc.contributor.authorSkrivarhaug, Torild
dc.contributor.authorStørdal, Ketil
dc.contributor.authorStene, Lars Christian Mørch
dc.PublishedNature Methods. 2020, 17 (3), .
dc.description.abstractBackground The relationship between maternal gluten intake in pregnancy, offspring intake in childhood, and offspring risk of type 1 diabetes has not been examined jointly in any studies. Our aim was to study the relationship between maternal and child intake of gluten and risk of type 1 diabetes in children. Methods and findings We included 86,306 children in an observational nationwide cohort study, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), with recruitment from 1999 to 2008 and with follow-up time to April 15, 2018. We used registration of type 1 diabetes in the Norwegian childhood diabetes registry as the outcome. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the mother’s intake of gluten up to week 22 of pregnancy and offspring gluten intake when the child was 18 months old. The average time followed was 12.3 years (0.70–16.0). A total of 346 children (0.4%) children were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, resulting in an incidence rate of 32.6/100,000 person-years. Mean gluten intake per day was 13.6 g for mothers and 8.8 g for children. There was no association between the mother’s intake of gluten in pregnancy and offspring type 1 diabetes, with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73–1.43, p = 0.91) for each 10-g-per-day increment. There was an association between offspring intake of gluten and a higher risk of type 1 diabetes, with an aHR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.06–2.01, p = 0.02) for each 10-g-per-day increment. Among the limitations are the likely imprecision in estimation of gluten intake and that we only had information regarding gluten intake at 2 time points in early life. Conclusions Our results show that, while the mother’s intake of gluten in pregnancy was not associated with type 1 diabetes, a higher intake of gluten by the child at an early age may give a higher risk of type 1 diabetes.en_US
dc.publisherNature Researchen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleMaternal and child gluten intake and association with type 1 diabetes: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Studyen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2020 Lund-Blix et al.en_US
dc.source.journalNature Methodsen_US
dc.identifier.citationNature Methods. 2020, 17 (3), e1003032.en_US

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
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