TAT-Modified Gold Nanoparticles Enhance the Antitumor Activity of PAD4 Inhibitors
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonInternational Journal of Nanomedicine. 2020, 15, 6659–6671. 10.2147/IJN.S255546
Purpose: Histone citrullination by peptidylarginine deiminases 4 (PAD4) regulates the gene expression of tumor suppressor. In our previously study, YW3-56 (356) was developed as a potent PAD4 inhibitor for cancer therapy with novel function in the autophagy pathway. To enhance the antitumor activity, the PAD4 inhibitor 356 was modified by the well-established cationic penetrating peptide RKKRRQRRR (peptide TAT) and gold nanoparticles to obtain 356-TAT-AuNPs which could enhance the permeability of chemical drug in solid tumor. Methods: 356-TAT-AuNPs were prepared, and their morphology were characterized. The antitumor activity of 356-TAT-AuNPs was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results: 356-TAT-AuNPs exhibited higher anticancer activity against HCT-116, MCF-7 and A549 cells than 356 and 356-AuNPs. Compared with 356 and 356-AuNPs, 356-TAT-AuNPs entered the cytoplasm and nuclear, exhibited stronger anticancer activity by increasing apoptosis, inducing autophagy and inhibiting of histone H3 citrullination, and in HCT-116 xenograft mouse model, 356-TAT-AuNPs could improve the antitumor activity. Conclusion: The modified AuNPs with peptide TAT as drug delivery system are potent in delaying tumor growth and could be a powerful vehicle for profitable anticancer drug development. We believe that peptide TAT modification strategy may provide a simple and valuable method for improving antitumor activity of PAD4 inhibitors for clinical use.