Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Pakistan- A nation-wide multicenter retrospective study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPLOS ONE. 2020, 15 (4), e0232134. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232134
Background Pakistan is fifth among high burden countries for tuberculosis. A steady increase is seen in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which now accounts for 20% of all notified TB cases. There is very limited information on the epidemiology of EPTB. This study was performed with the aim to describe the demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of EPTB patients in Pakistan. Method We performed descriptive analysis on routinely collected data for cohorts of TB patients registered nationwide in 2016 at health facilities selected using stratified convenient sampling. Findings Altogether 54092 TB including 15790 (29.2%) EPTB cases were registered in 2016 at 50 study sites. The median age was 24 years for EPTB and 30 years for PTB patients. The crude prevalence of EPTB in females was 30.5% (95%CI; 29.9–31.0) compared to 27.9% (95%CI; 27.3–28.4) in males. The likelihood of having EPTB (OR), was 1.1 times greater for females, 2.0 times for children, and 3.3 times for residents of provinces in the North-West. The most common forms of EPTB were pleural (29.6%), lymphatic (22.7%) and abdominal TB (21.0%). Pleural TB was the most common clinical manifestation in adults (34.2%) and abdominal TB in children (38.4%). An increase in the prevalence of pleural and osteoarticular and decline in lymphatic and abdominal TB was observed with advancing age. Diversity in demography and clinical manifestations were noted between provinces. The treatment success rate for all type EPTB was significantly high compared to bacteriology confirmed PTB with the exception of EPTB affecting CNS with a high mortality rate. Conclusions The study provides an insight into demography, clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of EPTB. Further studies are needed to explain significant diversities observed between provinces, specific risk factors and challenges concerning EPTB management.