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dc.contributor.authorLennox, Robert J.
dc.contributor.authorSalvanes, Anne Gro Vea
dc.contributor.authorBarlaup, Bjørn Torgeir
dc.contributor.authorStöger, Elisabeth
dc.contributor.authorMadhun, Abdullah
dc.contributor.authorHelle, Turid Myklebust
dc.contributor.authorVollset, Knut
dc.date.accessioned2021-05-10T12:22:54Z
dc.date.available2021-05-10T12:22:54Z
dc.date.created2020-08-03T13:14:33Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.PublishedAquatic Toxicology. 2020, 224 1-8.
dc.identifier.issn0166-445X
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/11250/2754689
dc.descriptionUnder embargo until: 2022-05-23en_US
dc.description.abstractEmamectin benzoate (EB) is a prophylactic pharmaceutical used to protect Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts migrating out of rivers and into the ocean against sea lice parasites. Randomized control trials comparing the marine survival of smolts treated with EB to a control group is used to calculate the fraction of marine mortality attributable to sea lice parasitism. However, it is assumed that there is no baseline difference in survival induced by the application of EB treatment. We used a combined laboratory and field study approach to investigate the potential impacts of EB treatment on behaviour and survival of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon in western Norway. In aquaria experiments, EB-treated salmon smolts did not differ significantly in exploratory behaviour. Fish from treated groups responded similarly to simulated predator attack with spontaneous escape and elevated gill beat rate. Three rivers in the Osterfjord system of western Norway were selected for field experiments, Dale, Vosso, and Modalen. Dale River smolts were treated with intraperitoneal EB injections and had lower probability of detection in a wolf trap downstream of the release site than control smolts. Salmon smolts raised in the Vosso River hatchery were treated with EB delivered in their food and were detected on PIT antennas at the rivermouth of Vosso and Modalen at lower rates than control fish, but only when released at downstream sites. Calculation of risk ratios suggested that the bias in mortality caused by treatment with EB decreased the estimated survival of treated fish from an expected 18%to 46%, reducing the observable negative impact of sea lice on Atlantic salmon smolts in randomized control trials. The results suggest that estimates of the fraction of mortality attributable to sea lice may be underestimated due to lower baseline survival of treated fish caused by treatment and bring urgent attention towards a potential systematic underestimation of the impacts of sea lice on wild salmon.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.no*
dc.titleNegative impacts of the sea lice prophylactic emamectin benzoate on the survival of hatchery released salmon smolts in riversen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.description.versionacceptedVersionen_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2020 Elsevieren_US
dc.source.articlenumber105519en_US
cristin.ispublishedtrue
cristin.fulltextpostprint
cristin.qualitycode2
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105519
dc.identifier.cristin1821333
dc.source.journalAquatic Toxicologyen_US
dc.source.40224
dc.identifier.citationAquatic Toxicology. 2020, 224, 105519en_US
dc.source.volume224en_US


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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal
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