Association of maternal HIV‐1 severity with dental caries: an observational study of uninfected 5‐ to 7‐yr‐old children of HIV‐1‐infected mothers without severe immune suppression
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionEuropean Journal of Oral Sciences. 2020, 128(1), 46-54 10.1111/eos.12669
Treatment programs to prevent perinatal and postnatal HIV-1 transmission have become available in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to an emerging population of HIV-1 exposed uninfected (HEU) children. Exposure to HIV-1 in utero and during breastfeeding may increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in HEU children. This study estimated the association of the severity of maternal HIV-1 infection as assessed by CD4 count and viral load at baseline (7 d postpartum), with dmft count of their 5- to 7-yr-old HEU offspring. A follow-up study was conducted of HIV-1-infected mother–HEU children pairs (n = 164) from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12341-PROMISE- PEP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00640263). HIV-1-infected mothers were interviewed and the HEU children were examined for caries using the World Health Organization's survey methods for field conditions and the dmft index. Directed acyclic graphs and negative binomial regression were used for analyses. The prevalence of 1 or more dmft was 48%. Negative binomial regression showed no association between the dmft count and maternal CD4 counts 7 d postpartum but a 10% lower dmft count with longer breastfeeding duration was found. Maternal CD4 count at birth was not associated with the dental caries experience in uninfected children born to women without severe immune suppression, while there appeared to be a protective effect of high viral load and breastfeeding duration.