Barriers and enablers of adherence to infant nevirapine prophylaxis against HIV 1 transmission among 6-week-old HIV exposed infants: A prospective cohort study in Northern Uganda
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPLOS ONE. 2020, 15 (10), e0240529 10.1371/journal.pone.0240529
Background Sub-optimal adherence to infant prophylaxis has been associated with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV. However, the factors associated have not been well characterised in different settings. This study describes barriers and enablers of adherence to infant prophylaxis among 6-week-old HIV exposed infants in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted from 2018–2020 at the PMTCT clinic at Lira Regional Referral Hospital and included 472 mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited, followed up at delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain data on socio-demographic, reproductive-related, HIV-related characteristics and adherence. Data were analysed using Stata to estimate adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regression models to ascertain barriers and enablers of adherence to infant nevirapine prophylaxis. Results Barriers to infant adherence are maternal characteristics including: younger age (≤20 years adjusted risk ratio (ARR) = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.1–2.2), missing a viral load test during pregnancy (ARR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.7) and not receiving nevirapine syrup for the baby after childbirth (ARR = 6.2; 95% CI: 5.1–7.6). Enablers were: having attained ≥14 years of schooling (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5–0.9), taking a nevirapine-based regimen (ARR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.9), long-term ART (≥ 60 months ARR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9), accompanied by a husband to hospital during labour and childbirth (ARR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4–0.7) and labour starting at night (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6–0.8). Conclusion and recommendations Despite mothers receiving nevirapine syrup from the health workers for the infant, non-adherence rates still prevail at 14.8%. The health system needs to consider giving HIV infected pregnant women the nevirapine syrup before birth to avoid delays and non-adherence. There is need to pay particular attention to younger women and those who recently started ART.