Cost-effectiveness of treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in treatment initiative centers and treatment follow-up centers in Ethiopia
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPLOS ONE. 2020, 15 (7), e0235820. 10.1371/journal.pone.0235820
Background: In Ethiopia, MDR-TB has become a significant public health threat; therefore, the Ministry of Health introduced two treatment approaches for MDR-TB cases: treatment initiative center (TIC) and treatment follow-up center (TFC). TIC is where patients usually are diagnosed and start the treatment. At TFC, we follow MDR-TB patients until they completed the treatment. However, there is no evidence about the cost-effectiveness of the approaches. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the cost-effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in TIC and TFC. Methods: In this study, we employed a full economic evaluation from a providers' perspective. We followed a hypothetical cohort of individuals from the age of 15 for a lifetime using a Markov model with five mutually exclusive health states. We used both primary and secondary data sources for the study. Ingredient-based costing approach was used. The costs include healthcare provider costs (recurrent and capital cost) and patient-side costs (direct and indirect). We use a human capital approach to estimate the indirect cost. The cost estimates were reported in the 2017 United States Dollar (US$), and effectiveness was measured using disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. Both costs and health benefits were discounted using a 3% discount rate. Both average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were reported calculated. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were reported to determine the robustness of the estimates. Results: The cost per HIV negative patient successfully treated for MDR-TB was USD 8,416 at TIC and USD 6,657 at TFC. The average cost-effectiveness ratio per DALY averted at TFC was USD 671 and USD 1,417 per DALY averted at TIC. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of MDR-TB treatment at TIC was USD 1,641 per DALYs averted. Conclusion: This study indicates that the treatment of MDR-TB at both TIC and TFC are cost-effective interventions compared with the willingness to pay threshold of three-times the GDP per capita in Ethiopia.