MPT64 antigen detection test improves diagnosis of pediatric extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Mbeya, Tanzania
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonScientific Reports. 2021, 11, 17540. 10.1038/s41598-021-97010-2
Pediatric extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a diagnostic challenge. A new immunochemistry based MPT64 antigen detection test has shown improved sensitivity compared to current laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to implement and validate the test performance in a resource limited African setting. Presumptive pediatric (0–18 y) EPTB patients were prospectively enrolled at Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital, and followed to the end of treatment or until a final diagnosis was reached. Specimens from suspected sites of infection were subject to routine diagnostics, GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and the MPT64 test. The performance of the tests was assessed using mycobacterial culture as well as a composite reference standard. 30 patients were categorized as TB cases, 31 as non-TB cases and 2 were uncategorized. In the TB group, the three most common infections were adenitis (30%), peritonitis (30%) and meningitis (20%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of the MPT64 test was 92%, 88%, 87%, 92% and 90%, respectively. Mortality was equally high among TB/non-TB cases (23% vs 21%), and malnutrition was the main comorbidity among TB cases. The MPT64 test was implementable in the routine diagnostics in a low-resource setting and improved the diagnosis of pediatric EPTB.