Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorGjerdevik, Miriam
dc.contributor.authorLie, Rolv T.
dc.contributor.authorHaaland, Øystein Ariansen
dc.contributor.authorBerg, Erik
dc.contributor.authorFeragen, Kristin Billaud
dc.contributor.authorSivertsen, Åse
dc.description.abstractObjective To compare school grades of adolescents in Norway born with isolated cleft with those of their unaffected peers. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Norway. Patients A total of 347 419 individuals born in Norway between 1986 and 1992, including 523 isolated cleft cases which were identified using data from Norway’s two treatment centres. Individuals were followed from birth through compulsory school. Main outcome measures Grade point average (GPA) from middle school graduation (around the age of 16). Specific subject grades were also investigated. Results Using a grade scale from 1–6, the observed mean GPA for the reference group was 3.99. Both cleft lip only (CLO) and cleft lip with cleft palate (CLP) had a mean GPA similar to the reference group (adjusted GPA differences from the reference with 95% CIs of 0.06 (−0.04 to 0.16) and −0.08 (−0.19 to 0.03), respectively). Cleft palate only (CPO) had a marginally lower GPA (adjusted GPA difference: −0.18 (−0.28 to −0.08)). These comparisons were consistent across specific subjects. Overall, the evidence suggests a larger difference in GPA between cases and controls in males compared with females. Females with CLO even had a higher estimated GPA than females in the reference group (adjusted GPA difference: 0.19 (0.013 to 0.36)). Grades were similar regardless of laterality of cleft lip (CLO or CLP). Conclusion In Norway, individuals born with isolated CLO or CLP did not have lower average school grades when graduating from middle school. Individuals born with isolated CPO had marginally lower grades.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleIsolated oral clefts and school grades: population-based cohort study from Norwayen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2021 The Authorsen_US
dc.source.journalBMJ Openen_US
dc.identifier.citationBMJ Open. 2021, 11 (10), e046944.en_US

Files in this item


This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal