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dc.contributor.authorLembrechts, Jonas J.
dc.contributor.authorvan den Hoogen, Johan
dc.contributor.authorAalto, Juha
dc.contributor.authorAshcroft, Michael B.
dc.contributor.authorDe Frenne, Pieter
dc.contributor.authorKemppinen, Julia
dc.contributor.authorKopecký, Martin
dc.contributor.authorLuoto, Miska
dc.contributor.authorMaclean, Ilya M. D.
dc.contributor.authorCrowther, Thomas W.
dc.contributor.authorBailey, Joseph J.
dc.contributor.authorHaesen, Stef
dc.contributor.authorKlinges, David H.
dc.contributor.authorNiittynen, Pekka
dc.contributor.authorScheffers, Brett R.
dc.contributor.authorVan Meerbeek, Koenraad
dc.contributor.authorAartsma, Peter
dc.contributor.authorAbdalaze, Otar
dc.contributor.authorAbedi, Mehdi
dc.contributor.authorAerts, Rien
dc.contributor.authorAhmadian, Negar
dc.contributor.authorAhrends, Antje
dc.contributor.authorAlatalo, Juha M.
dc.contributor.authorAlexander, Jake M.
dc.contributor.authorAltman, Jan
dc.contributor.authorAllonsius, Camille Nina
dc.contributor.authorAmmann, Christof
dc.contributor.authorAndres, Christian
dc.contributor.authorAndrews, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorArdö, Jonas
dc.contributor.authorArriga, Nicola
dc.contributor.authorArzac, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorAschero, Valeria
dc.contributor.authorLeandro de Assis, Rafael
dc.contributor.authorBjerke, Jarle W.
dc.contributor.authorCooper, Elisabeth J.
dc.contributor.authorGraae, Bente Jessen
dc.contributor.authorRechsteiner, Aud Helen Halbritter
dc.contributor.authorHaugum, Siri Vatsø
dc.contributor.authorLang, Simone
dc.contributor.authorLynn, Joshua Scott
dc.contributor.authorMoriana Armendariz, Mikel
dc.contributor.authorPetit Bon, Matteo
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Stuart
dc.contributor.authorSørensen, Mia Vedel
dc.contributor.authorSpeed, James David Mervyn
dc.contributor.authorVandvik, Vigdis
dc.contributor.authorWedegärtner, Ronja Elisabeth Magdalene
dc.contributor.authorNijs, Ivan
dc.contributor.authorLenoir, Jonathan
dc.date.accessioned2022-03-18T08:57:48Z
dc.date.available2022-03-18T08:57:48Z
dc.date.created2022-01-05T14:15:35Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.issn1354-1013
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/11250/2986065
dc.description.abstractResearch in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km² resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e., offset) between in-situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km² pixels (summarized from 8500 unique temperature sensors) across all the world’s major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (-0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in-situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherWileyen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.no*
dc.titleGlobal maps of soil temperatureen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.description.versionpublishedVersionen_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2021 The Author(s)en_US
cristin.ispublishedtrue
cristin.fulltextpostprint
cristin.qualitycode2
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/gcb.16060
dc.identifier.cristin1975251
dc.source.journalGlobal Change Biologyen_US
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Zoologiske og botaniske fag: 480en_US
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Zoology and botany: 480en_US
dc.identifier.citationGlobal Change Biology. 2021en_US


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Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal