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dc.contributor.authorKnudtzen, Fredrikke Christie
dc.contributor.authorEikeland, Randi
dc.contributor.authorBremell, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorPaulsen, Else Quist
dc.contributor.authorJohansen, Isik Somuncu
dc.contributor.authorSolheim, Anne Marit
dc.contributor.authorSkarphédinsson, Sigurdur
dc.description.abstractBackground Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) presenting with encephalitis is rare and scarcely described. Objectives To describe the available literature on LNB encephalitis and to characterize this patient group through a Scandinavian retrospective cohort study. Data sources Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane library. Study eligibility criteria There was no discrimination on study type, time of publication or language. Participants Review: All articles with definite LNB and confirmed/possible encephalitis. Cohort: LNB cohorts from Denmark, Sweden and Norway 1990–2019 were screened for patients with encephalitis. Methods Review: Adhering to PRISMA guidelines; two authors extracted reviews and assessed quality of studies. Cohort: Data on demography, symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid findings, differential diagnostic examinations, treatment, residual symptoms, 1-year mortality were registered. Results Review: 2330 articles screened on title/abstract, 281 full texts, yielding 42 articles (case reports/series or cohort studies), including 45 patients from 18 countries spanning 35 years. Altered mental status ranged from personality changes and confusion to unconsciousness. Common focal symptoms were hemiparesis, ataxia and dysarthria; seven patients had seizures. Median time from symptom onset to hospital was 2 weeks (IQR 2–90 days). Of 38 patients with available follow-up after median 12 months (IQR 5–13), 32 had fully or partially recovered, two had died. Cohort: Thirty-five patients (median age 67 years, IQR 48–76) were included. The encephalitis prevalence was 3.3% (95% CI 2.2–4.4%) among 1019 screened LNB patients. Frequent encephalitis symptoms were confusion, personality changes, aphasia, ataxia. EEGs and neuroimaging showed encephalitis in 93.8% and 20.6%, respectively. Median delay from symptom onset to hospital was 14 days (IQR 7–34), with further 7 days (IQR 3–34) delay until targeted therapy. At follow-up (median 298 days post-treatment; IQR 113–389), 65.6% had residual symptoms. None had died. Conclusions This study shows that encephalitis is an uncommon, but likely overlooked clinical manifestation of LNB. As the high frequency of residual symptoms may be related to prolonged treatment delay, prompt LNB testing of patients with encephalitis in Borrelia burgdorferi-endemic areas should be considered.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleLyme neuroborreliosis with encephalitis; a systematic literature review and a Scandinavian cohort studyen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2021 The Author(s)en_US
dc.source.journalClinical Microbiology and Infection (CMI)en_US
dc.identifier.citationClinical Microbiology and Infection (CMI). 2022, 28, 649-656.en_US

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
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