Nora3: A nonhydrostatic high-resolution hindcast of the North sea, the Norwegian sea, and the Barents sea
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonJournal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. 2021, 60 (10), 1443-1464. 10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0029.1
The 3-km Norwegian Reanalysis (NORA3) is a 15-yr mesoscale-permitting atmospheric hindcast of the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, and the Barents Sea. With a horizontal resolution of 3 km, the nonhydrostatic numerical weather prediction model HARMONIE–AROME runs explicitly resolved deep convection and yields hindcast fields that realistically downscale the ERA5 reanalysis. The wind field is much improved relative to its host analysis, in particular in mountainous areas and along the improved grid-resolving coastlines. NORA3 also performs much better than the earlier hydrostatic 10-km Norwegian Hindcast Archive (NORA10) in complex terrain. NORA3 recreates the detailed structures of mesoscale cyclones with sharp gradients in wind and with clear frontal structures, which are particularly important when modeling polar lows. In extratropical windstorms, NORA3 exhibits significantly higher maximum wind speeds and compares much better to observed maximum wind than do NORA10 and ERA5. The activity of the model is much more realistic than that of NORA10 and ERA5, both over the ocean and in complex terrain.