Toll-like Receptor 4, Osteoblasts and Leukemogenesis; the Lesson from Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Journal article, Peer reviewed
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionMolecules. 2022, 27 (3), 735. 10.3390/molecules27030735
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pattern-recognizing receptor that can bind exogenous and endogenous ligands. It is expressed by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, several bone marrow stromal cells, and nonleukemic cells involved in inflammation. TLR4 can bind a wide range of endogenous ligands that are present in the bone marrow microenvironment. Furthermore, the TLR4-expressing nonleukemic bone marrow cells include various mesenchymal cells, endothelial cells, differentiated myeloid cells, and inflammatory/immunocompetent cells. Osteoblasts are important stem cell supporting cells localized to the stem cell niches, and they support the proliferation and survival of primary AML cells. These supporting effects are mediated by the bidirectional crosstalk between AML cells and supportive osteoblasts through the local cytokine network. Finally, TLR4 is also important for the defense against complicating infections in neutropenic patients, and it seems to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory and immunological reactions in patients treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Thus, TLR4 has direct effects on primary AML cells, and it has indirect effects on the leukemic cells through modulation of their supporting neighboring bone marrow stromal cells (i.e., modulation of stem cell niches, regulation of angiogenesis). Furthermore, in allotransplant recipients TLR4 can modulate inflammatory and potentially antileukemic immune reactivity. The use of TLR4 targeting as an antileukemic treatment will therefore depend both on the biology of the AML cells, the biological context of the AML cells, aging effects reflected both in the AML and the stromal cells and the additional antileukemic treatment combined with HSP90 inhibition.