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dc.contributor.authorFjelltveit, Elisabeth Berg
dc.contributor.authorBlomberg, Bjørn
dc.contributor.authorKuwelker, Kanika
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Fan
dc.contributor.authorOnyango, Therese Bredholt
dc.contributor.authorBrokstad, Karl Albert
dc.contributor.authorElyanow, Rebecca G
dc.contributor.authorKaplan, Ian
dc.contributor.authorTøndel, Camilla
dc.contributor.authorMohn, Kristin Greve-Isdahl
dc.contributor.authorÖzgümüs, Türküler
dc.contributor.authorCox, Rebecca Jane
dc.contributor.authorLangeland, Nina
dc.description.abstractBackground The burden and duration of persistent symptoms after nonsevere coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess postinfection symptom trajectories in home-isolated COVID-19 cases compared with age- and time- matched seronegative controls, and investigate immunological correlates of long COVID. Methods A prospective case-control study included home-isolated COVID-19 cases between February 28 and April 4, 2020, and followed for 12 (n = 233) to 18 (n = 149) months, and 189 age-matched severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-naive controls. We collected clinical data at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months postinfection, and blood samples at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months for analysis of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses. Results Overall, 46% (108/233) had persisting symptoms 12 months after COVID-19. Compared with controls, adult cases had a high risk of fatigue (27% excess risk, sex, and comorbidity adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.27–10.5), memory problems (21% excess risk; aOR 7.42; CI, 3.51–15.67), concentration problems (20% excess risk; aOR 8.88; 95% CI, 3.88–20.35), and dyspnea (10% excess risk; aOR 2.66; 95% CI, 1.22–5.79). The prevalence of memory problems increased overall from 6 to 18 months (excess risk 11.5%; 95% CI, 1.5–21.5; P = .024) and among women (excess risk 18.7%; 95% CI, 4.4–32.9; P = .010). Longitudinal spike immunoglobulin G was significantly associated with dyspnea at 12 months. The spike-specific clonal CD4+ T-cell receptor β depth was significantly associated with both dyspnea and number of symptoms at 12 months. Conclusions This study documents a high burden of persisting symptoms after mild COVID-19 and suggests that infection induced SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses may influence long-term symptoms.en_US
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleSymptom burden and immune dynamics 6 to 18 months following mild SARS-CoV-2 infection -a case-control studyen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2022 The Author(s)en_US
dc.source.journalClinical Infectious Diseasesen_US
dc.identifier.citationClinical Infectious Diseases. 2022en_US

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal
Med mindre annet er angitt, så er denne innførselen lisensiert som Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal