Parameterized Graph Modification Algorithms
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Graph modification problems form an important class of algorithmic problems in computer science. In this thesis, we study edge modification problems towards classes related to chordal graphs, with the main focus on trivially perfect graphs and threshold graphs. We provide several new results in classical complexity, kernelization complexity, and subexponential parameterized complexity. In all cases we give positive and negative results—giving polynomial time algorithms as well as NP-hardness results, polynomial kernels as well as polynomial kernel impossibility results, and we give subexponential time algorithms, and show that many problems do not admit such algorithms unless the exponential time hypothesis fails. Our main focus is on the subexponential time complexity of edge modification problems. For that to make sense, we first need to figure out whether or not we actually need super-polynomial time. We show that editing towards trivially perfect graphs, threshold graphs, and chain graphs are all NP-complete, resolving 15 year old open questions. When a problem is shown to be NP-complete, we study exactly how much exponential time is needed for an algorithm to solve it. We provide several subexponential time algorithms, for, e.g., editing towards chain graphs and threshold graphs, as well as completing towards trivially perfect graphs. We complement our results by showing that small alterations in the target graph classes yields much harder problems: Editing towards trivially perfect graphs and cographs is not possible in subexponential time unless the exponential time hypothesis fails. A first step in our subexponential time algorithms, and an otherwise natural first step in dealing with NP-hard problems is offered by the toolbox of polynomial kernelization. In polynomial kernelizations, we are asked to design polynomial time compression algorithms that shrink the input instances to output instances bounded polynomially in a yes-solution. We provide polynomial kernels for all edge modification problems towards trivially perfect graphs, threshold graphs and chain graphs. In addition, we show that on bounded degree input graphs, we obtain polynomial kernels for any editing or deletion problem towards graph classes characterizable by a finite set of forbidden induced subgraphs. Finally, we show that we should not expect the same result for completion problems by proving that such a compression algorithm would imply the collapse of the polynomial hierarchy.