Preoperative tumor size at MRI predicts deep myometrial invasion, lymph node metastases, and patient outcome in endometrial carcinomas
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relation between preoperative tumor size based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the surgical pathologic staging parameters (deep myometrial invasion, cervical stroma invasion, and metastatic lymph nodes) and to assess the prognostic impact of tumor size in endometrial carcinomas. Interobserver variability for the different tumor size measurements was also assessed. METHODS/MATERIALS: Preoperative pelvic MRI of 212 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial carcinomas was read independently by 3 radiologists. Maximum tumor diameters were measured in 3 orthogonal planes (anteroposterior, transverse, and craniocaudal planes [CC]), and tumor volumes were estimated. Tumor size was analyzed in relation to surgical staging results and patient survival. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for preoperative risk status based on endometrial biopsy. Intraclass correlation coefficients and receiver operating characteristics curves for the different tumor measurements were also calculated. RESULTS: Anteroposterior tumor diameter independently predicted deep myometrial invasion (P < 0.001), whereas CC tumor diameter tended to independently predict lymph node metastases (P = 0.06). Based on receiver operating characteristic curves, the following tumor size cutoff values were identified: anteroposterior diameter greater than 2 cm predicted deep myometrial invasion (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 12.4; P < 0.001; adjusted OR, 6.7; P < 0.001) and CC diameter greater than 4 cm predicted lymph node metastases (unadjusted OR, 6.2; P < 0.001; adjusted OR, 4.9; P = 0.009). Large tumor size was associated with reduced progression/recurrence-free survival (P ≤ 0.005 for all size parameters), and CC diameter had an independent impact on survival (adjusted hazards ratio, 1.04; P = 0.009). The interobserver variability for the different size measurements was very low (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.78-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Anteroposterior tumor diameter greater than 2 cm predicts deep myometrial invasion, and CC tumor diameter greater than 4 cm predicts lymph node metastases. Tumor size is a strong prognostic factor in endometrial carcinomas. Preoperative tumor measurements based on MRI may potentially improve preoperative risk stratification models and thus enable better tailored surgical treatment in endometrial cancer.