• Bedymo: A combined quasi-geostrophic and primitive equation model in σ coordinates 

      Spensberger, Clemens; Thorsteinsson, Trond; Spengler, Thomas (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2022)
      This paper introduces the Bergen Dynamical Model (Bedymo), an idealized atmospheric circulation model, which combines the quasi-geostrophic approximation and the hydrostatic primitive equations into one modelling framework. ...
    • Development of an atmospheric chemistry model coupled to the PALM model system 6.0: implementation and first applications 

      Khan, Basit; Banzhaf, Sabine; Chan, Edward C.; Forkel, Renate; Kanani-Sühring, Farah; Ketelsen, Klaus; Kurppa, Mona; Maronga, Bjørn; Mauder, Matthias; Raasch, Siegfried; Russo, Emmanuele; Schaap, Martijn; Sühring, Matthias (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      In this article we describe the implementation of an online-coupled gas-phase chemistry model in the turbulence-resolving PALM model system 6.0 (formerly an abbreviation for Parallelized Large-eddy Simulation Model and now ...
    • Evaluation of the dynamic core of the PALM model system 6.0 in a neutrally stratified urban environment: comparison between LES and wind-tunnel experiments 

      Gronemeier, Tobias; Surm, Kerstin; Harms, Frank; Leitl, Bernd; Maronga, Bjørn; Raasch, Siegfried (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      We demonstrate the capability of the PALM model system version 6.0 to simulate neutrally stratified urban boundary layers. Our simulation uses the real-world building configuration of the HafenCity area in Hamburg, Germany. ...
    • Importance of radiative transfer processes in urban climate models: A study based on the PALM 6.0 model system 

      Salim, Mohamed H.; Schubert, Sebastian; Resler, Jaroslav; Krč, Pavel; Maronga, Bjørn; Kanani-Sühring, Farah; Sühring, Matthias; Schneider, Christoph (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2022)
      Including radiative transfer processes within the urban canopy layer into microscale urban climate models (UCMs) is essential to obtain realistic model results. These processes include the interaction of buildings and ...
    • Modeling lightning observations from space-based platforms (CloudScat.jl 1.0) 

      Luque, Alejandro; Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco José; Li, Dongshuai; Malagón-Romero, Alejandro; Pérez-Invernón, F. J.; Schmalzried, Anthony; Soler, Sergio; Chanrion, Olivier; Heumesser, Matthias; Neubert, Torsten; Reglero, Victor; Østgaard, Nikolai (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      We describe a computer code that simulates how a satellite observes optical radiation emitted by a lightning flash after it is scattered within an intervening cloud. Our code, CloudScat.jl, is flexible, fully open source ...
    • Modeling of land–surface interactions in the PALM model system 6.0: land surface model description, first evaluation, and sensitivity to model parameters 

      Gehrke, Katrin Frieda; Sühring, Matthias; Maronga, Bjørn (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      In this paper the land surface model embedded in the PALM model system is described and evaluated against in situ measurements at Cabauw, Netherlands. A total of 2 consecutive clear-sky days are simulated, and the components ...
    • A nested multi-scale system implemented in the large-eddy simulation model PALM model system 6.0 

      Hellsten, Antti; Ketelsen, Klaus; Sühring, Matthias; Auvinen, Mikko; Maronga, Bjørn; Knigge, Christoph; Barmpas, Fotios; Tsegas, George; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Raasch, Siegfried (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Large-eddy simulation (LES) provides a physically sound approach to study complex turbulent processes within the atmospheric boundary layer including urban boundary layer flows. However, such flow problems often involve a ...
    • NorCPM1 and its contribution to CMIP6 DCPP 

      Bethke, Ingo; Wang, Yiguo; Counillon, Francois Stephane; Keenlyside, Noel Sebastian; Kimmritz, Madlen; Fransner, Filippa; Samuelsen, Annette; Langehaug, Helene R.; Svendsen, Lea; Chiu, Ping-Gin; Passos, Leilane G.; Bentsen, Mats; Guo, Chuncheng; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Tjiputra, Jerry; Kirkevåg, Alf; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Seland, Øyvind; Vågane, Julie Solsvik; Fan, Yuanchao; Eldevik, Tor (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      The Norwegian Climate Prediction Model version 1 (NorCPM1) is a new research tool for performing climate reanalyses and seasonal-to-decadal climate predictions. It combines the Norwegian Earth System Model version 1 (NorESM1) ...
    • Ocean biogeochemistry in the Norwegian Earth System Model version 2 (NorESM2) 

      Tjiputra, Jerry; Schwinger, Jörg; Bentsen, Mats; Morée, Anne; Gao, Shuang; Bethke, Ingo; Heinze, Christoph; Goris, Nadine; Gupta, Alok Kumar; He, Yan-Chun; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Seland, Øyvind; Schulz, Michael (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      The ocean carbon cycle is a key player in the climate system through its role in regulating the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and other processes that alter the Earth's radiative balance. In the second version ...
    • Overview of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) and key climate response of CMIP6 DECK, historical, and scenario simulations 

      Seland, Øyvind; Bentsen, Mats; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Toniazzo, Thomas; Gjermundsen, Ada; Graff, Lise Seland; Debernard, Jens Boldingh; Gupta, Alok Kumar; He, Yan-Chun; Kirkevåg, Alf; Schwinger, Jörg; Tjiputra, Jerry; Aas, Kjetil Schanke; Bethke, Ingo; Fan, Yuanchao; Griesfeller, Jan; Grini, Alf; Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Karset, Inger Helene H.; Landgren, Oskar Andreas; Liakka, Johan; Moseid, Kine Onsum; Nummelin, Aleksi; Spensberger, Clemens; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Zhongshi; Heinze, Christoph; Iversen, Trond; Schulz, Michael (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-12)
      The second version of the coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) is presented and evaluated. NorESM2 is based on the second version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM2) and shares with CESM2 the computer ...
    • Overview of the PALM model system 6.0 

      Maronga, Bjørn; Banzhaf, Sabine; Burmeister, Cornelia; Esch, Thomas; Forkel, Renate; Fröhlich, Dominik; Fuka, Vladimir; Gehrke, Katrin Frieda; Geletič, Jan; Giersch, Sebastian; Gronemeier, Tobias; Groß, Günter; Heldens, Wieke; Hellsten, Antti; Hoffmann, Fabian; Inagaki, Atsushi; Kadasch, Eckhard; Kanani-Sühring, Farah; Ketelsen, Klaus; Ali Khan, Basit; Knigge, Christoph; Knoop, Helge; Krč, Pavel; Kurppa, Mona; Maamari, Halim; Matzarakis, Andreas; Mauder, Matthias; Pallasch, Matthias; Pavlik, Dirk; Pfafferott, Jens; Resler, Jaroslav; Rissmann, Sascha; Russo, Emmanuele; Salim, Mohamed; Schrempf, Michael; Schwenkel, Johannes; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Schubert, Sebastian; Sühring, Matthias; von Tils, Robert; Vollmer, Lukas; Ward, Simon; Witha, Björn; Wurps, Hauke; Zeidler, Julian; Raasch, Siegfried (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      In this paper, we describe the PALM model system 6.0. PALM (formerly an abbreviation for Parallelized Large-eddy Simulation Model and now an independent name) is a Fortran-based code and has been applied for studying a ...