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dc.contributor.authorMaes, Lukas
dc.contributor.authorMaggiolo, Romain
dc.contributor.authorDe Keyser, Johan
dc.contributor.authorDandouras, Iannis
dc.contributor.authorFear, Robert C.
dc.contributor.authorFontaine, Dominique
dc.contributor.authorHaaland, Stein
dc.PublishedGeophysical Research Letters 2015, 42(5):1304-1311eng
dc.description.abstractWe measure the flux density, composition, and energy of outflowing ions above the polar cap, accelerated by quasi-static electric fields parallel to the magnetic field and associated with polar cap arcs, using Cluster. Mapping the spacecraft position to its ionospheric foot point, we analyze the dependence of these parameters on the solar zenith angle (SZA). We find a clear transition at SZA between ∼94° and ∼107°, with the O+ flux higher above the sunlit ionosphere. This dependence on the illumination of the local ionosphere indicates that significant O+ upflow occurs locally above the polar ionosphere. The same is found for H+, but to a lesser extent. This effect can result in a seasonal variation of the total ion upflow from the polar ionosphere. Furthermore, we show that low-magnitude field-aligned potential drops are preferentially observed above the sunlit ionosphere, suggesting a feedback effect of ionospheric conductivity.en_US
dc.publisherAGU Publicationsen_US
dc.rightsAttribution CC BY-NC-ND 4.0eng
dc.subjectcold ion outfloweng
dc.subjection upfloweng
dc.subjectpolar ionosphereeng
dc.subjectpolar cap arceng
dc.subjectsolar illuminationeng
dc.subjectpolar windeng
dc.titleSolar illumination control of ionospheric outflow above polar cap arcsen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2015 The Authorsen_US
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Matematikk og naturvitenskap: 400::Fysikk: 430::Rom- og plasmafysikk: 437
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Mathematics and natural scienses: 400::Physics: 430::Space and plasma physics: 437
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Matematikk og Naturvitenskap: 400en_US

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Attribution CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
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