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dc.contributor.authorSiemens, Nikolaien_US
dc.contributor.authorKittang, Bård Reiakvamen_US
dc.contributor.authorChakrakodi, Bhavyaen_US
dc.contributor.authorOppegaard, Oddvaren_US
dc.contributor.authorJohansson, Lindaen_US
dc.contributor.authorBruun, Tronden_US
dc.contributor.authorMylvaganam, Haimaen_US
dc.contributor.authorSvensson, Mattiasen_US
dc.contributor.authorSkrede, Steinaren_US
dc.contributor.authorNorrby-Teglund, Annaen_US
dc.PublishedScientific Reports 2015, 5:16945eng
dc.description.abstractStreptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins associated with epithelial barrier integrity were evident already at 8 hours post-infection. Invasive strains were significantly more cytotoxic towards keratinocytes and expressed higher Streptokinase and Streptolysin O (SLO) activities, as compared to non-invasive strains. The opposite was true for Streptolysin S (SLS). Fractionation and proteomic analysis of the cytotoxic fractions implicated SLO as a factor likely contributing to the keratinocyte cytotoxicity and tissue pathology. Analyses of patient tissue biopsies revealed massive bacterial load, high expression of slo, as well as immune cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest the contribution of SLO to epithelial cytotoxicity and tissue pathology in SDSE tissue infections.en_US
dc.publisherNature Publishing Groupeng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.titleIncreased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infectionsen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article

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