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dc.contributor.authorValen, Ragnhild
dc.contributor.authorEilertsen, Mariann
dc.contributor.authorEdvardsen, Rolf
dc.contributor.authorFurmanek, Tomasz
dc.contributor.authorRønnestad, Ivar
dc.contributor.authorvan der Meeren, Terje
dc.contributor.authorKarlsen, Ørjan
dc.contributor.authorNilsen, Tom Ole
dc.contributor.authorHelvik, Jon Vidar
dc.PublishedValen R, Eilertsen M, Edvardsen R, Furmanek TM, Rønnestad I, van der Meeren T, Karlsen ØK, Nilsen TO, Helvik JV. The two-step development of a duplex retina involves distinct events of cone and rod neurogenesis and differentiation. Developmental Biology. 2016;416(2):389-401eng
dc.description.abstractUnlike in mammals, persistent postembryonic retinal growth is a characteristic feature of fish, which includes major remodeling events that affect all cell types including photoreceptors. Consequently, visual capabilities change during development, where retinal sensitivity to different wavelengths of light (photopic vision), -and to limited photons (scotopic vision) are central capabilities for survival. Differently from well-established model fish, Atlantic cod has a prolonged larval stage where only cone photoreceptors are present. Rods do not appear until juvenile transition (metamorphosis), a hallmark of indirect developing species. Previously we showed that whole gene families of lws (red-sensitive) and sws1 (UV-sensitive) opsins have been lost in cod, while rh2a (green-sensitive) and sws2 (blue-sensitive) genes have tandem duplicated. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of a two-step developing duplex retina in Atlantic cod. The study focuses on cone subtype dynamics and delayed rod neurogenesis and differentiation in all cod life stages. Using transcriptomic and histological approaches we show that different opsins disappear in a topographic manner during development where central to peripheral retina is a key axis of expressional change. Early cone differentiation was initiated in dorso-temporal retina different from previously described in fish. Rods first appeared during initiation of metamorphosis and expression of the nuclear receptor transcription factor nr2e3-1, suggest involvement in rod specification. The indirect developmental strategy thus allows for separate studies of cones and rods development, which in nature correlates with visual changes linked to habitat shifts. The clustering of key retinal genes according to life stage, suggests that Atlantic cod with its sequenced genome may be an important resource for identification of underlying factors required for development and function of photopic and scotopic vision.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution CC BY-NC-NDeng
dc.subjectVisual opsinseng
dc.subjectIndirect developmenteng
dc.subjectAtlantic codeng
dc.titleThe two-step development of a duplex retina involves distinct events of cone and rod neurogenesis and differentiationen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2016 The Author(s)en_US
dc.source.journalDevelopmental Biology
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 199482
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Landbruks- og fiskerifag: 900::Fiskerifag: 920
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Agriculture and fisheries science: 900::Fisheries science: 920
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Matematikk og naturvitenskap: 400::Basale biofag: 470::Genetikk og genomikk: 474
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Mathematics and natural scienses: 400::Basic biosciences: 470::Genetics and genomics: 474

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