Effects of Frozen Storage on Phospholipid Content in Atlantic Cod Fillets and the Influence on Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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A large fraction of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in cod fillet is present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). Freezing initiates hydrolysis of the PLs present in the fillet. Here, we compared the effects of Western diets based on frozen cod, fresh cod or pork with a diet based on casein in male C57BL/6J mice fed for 12 weeks at thermoneutrality. Diets based on fresh cod contained more PL-bound n-3 PUFAs (3.12 mg/g diet) than diets based on frozen cod (1.9 mg/g diet). Mice fed diets containing pork and fresh cod, but not frozen cod, gained more body and fat mass than casein-fed mice. Additionally, the bioavailability of n-3 PUFAs present in the cod fillets was not influenced by storage conditions. In a second experiment, diets with pork as the protein source were supplemented with n-3 PUFAs in the form of PL or triacylglycerol (TAG) to match the levels of the diet containing fresh cod. Adding PL-bound, but not TAG-bound, n-3 PUFAs, to the pork-based diet increased body and fat mass gain. Thus, supplementation with PL-bound n-3 PUFAs did not protect against, but rather promoted, obesity development in mice fed a pork-based diet.