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dc.contributor.authorØyen, Jannike
dc.contributor.authorKvestad, Ingrid
dc.contributor.authorMidtbø, Lisa Kolden
dc.contributor.authorGraff, Ingvild Eide
dc.contributor.authorHysing, Mari
dc.contributor.authorStormark, Kjell Morten
dc.contributor.authorWik, Maria
dc.contributor.authorBaste, Valborg
dc.contributor.authorFrøyland, Livar
dc.contributor.authorKoletzko, Berthold
dc.contributor.authorDemmelmair, Hans
dc.contributor.authorDahl, Lisbeth
dc.contributor.authorLie, Øyvind
dc.contributor.authorKjellevold, Marian
dc.PublishedØyen J, Kvestad I, Midtbø LK, Graff IE, Hysing M, Stormark KM, Wik M, Baste V, Frøyland L, Koletzko B, Demmelmair, Dahl L, Lie Ø, Kjellevold MK. Fatty fish intake and cognitive function: FINS-KIDS, a randomized controlled trial in preschool children. BMC Medicine. 2018;16:41eng
dc.description.abstractBackground: Marine resources including fatty fish are important sources of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), which are important for brain development. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the impact of fatty fish on cognition in preschool children. The purpose of the trial was to investigate whether an increased intake of fatty fish compared to meat improves cognitive function in children 4–6 years old. Methods: The children (n = 232) in this two-armed RCT, Fish Intervention Studies-KIDS (FINS-KIDS) were recruited from 13 kindergartens in Bergen, Norway. They were randomly assigned to lunch meals with fatty fish (herring/mackerel) or meat (chicken/lamb/beef) three times a week for 16 weeks. The fish and meat were weighed before and after the meals to record the exact consumption (dietary compliance). The primary outcome was cognitive function measured by the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition (WPPSI-III) and fine-motor coordination measured by the 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) at pre- and post-intervention. Biological samples (blood, urine, hair), and questionnaires to the caregivers were included at both time points. Linear mixed effect models with a random intercept for kindergarten were used to analyze changes from pre- to post-intervention in the primary outcome variables. Results: There were 218 children included in the trial (105 in the fish, and 113 in the meat group). The children consumed a mean (standard deviation) of 2070 (978) g fish or 2675 (850) g meat from the study meals (p < 0.0001). The fish group had a significant increase of red blood cell n-3 LC-PUFAs. The intervention had no effect on the WPPSI-III scores (mean change total raw score; fish group 17.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 14.8–20.7 vs meat group 17.8, 95% CI 15.0–20.6, p = 0.97) in the main analyses. In the sub-analyses, adjusting for dietary compliance, the fish group showed a higher improvement on total raw score (20.4, 95% CI 17.5–23.3) compared to the meat group (15.2, 95% CI 12.4–18.0, p = 0.0060); docosahexaenoic acid mediated this effect. Conclusions: There was no beneficial effect of fatty fish compared to meat on cognitive functioning in the preschool children. When considering dietary compliance, we found a beneficial effect of fatty fish on cognitive scores.en_US
dc.publisherBioMed Centraleng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.subjectCognitive functioneng
dc.subjectDocosahexaenoic acideng
dc.subjectEicosapentaenoic acideng
dc.subjectFatty fisheng
dc.subjectOmega-3 indexeng
dc.subjectVitamin Deng
dc.subjectWechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligenceeng
dc.subject9-Hole Peg Testeng
dc.titleFatty fish intake and cognitive function: FINS-KIDS, a randomized controlled trial in preschool childreneng
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2018 The Authorseng
dc.source.journalBMC Medicine
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 222648

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