Forearm bone density is not elevated in Inuit women with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes mellitus
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk are elevated in adults with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This study aimed to compare bone health among Inuit women with IFG, T2D and normoglycemia. The study included Inuit women (≥40 y) with IFG (n = 57), T2D (n = 72) or normoglycemia (n = 340) from the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey 2007–2008 in Canada. Distal one-third forearm BMD (FaBMD) was measured using a peripheral instantaneous x-ray imager. Anthropometry, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum adiponectin, leptin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured. Traditional food intakes were surveyed. Data were analysed using mixed model ANOVA and regression models. The median age was 53 (IFG: IQR 48, 67) y and 56 (T2D: IQR 49, 63) y. Compared to normoglycemic women, FaBMD and T-scores were significantly lower in women with T2D, but not with IFG. Frequency of marine mammal intakes (ß = 0.145; 95%CI: 0.018, 0.053, p = 0.0001) positively related to FaBMD. The odds ratio of having a T-score consistent with osteoporosis was lower among women with T2D and higher BMI, while aging increased the risk. Although T2D associates with lower BMD among Inuit women, risk of osteoporosis is tempered, possibly by maintenance of a traditional lifestyle.