Wintertime fCO2 variability in the subpolar North Atlantic since 2004
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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- Geophysical Institute 
Winter data of surface ocean temperature (SST), salinity (SSS) and CO2 fugacity (fCO2) collected on the VOS M/V Nuka Arctica in the subpolar North Atlantic between 2004 and 2017 are used to establish trends, drivers, and interannual variability. Over the period, waters cooled and freshened, and the fCO2 increased at a rate similar to the atmospheric CO2 growth rate. When accounting for the freshening, the inferred increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was found to be approximately twice that expected from atmospheric CO2 alone. This is attributed to the cooling. In the Irminger Sea, fCO2 exhibited additional interannual variations driven by atmospheric forcing through winter mixing. As winter fCO2 in the region is close to the atmospheric, the subpolar North Atlantic has varied between being slightly supersaturated and slightly undersaturated over the investigated period.