Safety and security of autonomous vessels. Based on the Yara Birkeland project
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- Master theses 
Yara Birkeland will be the world’s first fully electric and autonomous container vessel with zero emission. It is being developed by Kongsberg and Yara. This is one of the autonomous projects ongoing in the maritime sector. Even though autonomy is a familiar theme to many people, it brings new challenges when being used in the maritime sector. How will the ships be designed when there is no need for a crew onboard? How will tasks normally performed by the crew be solved? How will the rules and regulations be applied? What are the safety and security issues? Unmanned vessels need to be equally safe and secure as conventional vessels, or even safer and more secure. In addition to the challenges, there are many positive sides for bringing autonomy into the maritime sector. Some examples are improved health of the crew, costs savings on crew facilities, and a new vessel design which can result in less air resistance, less fuel consumption, and a greener business. Studies have shown that many accidents at sea could have been avoided if the vessel was unmanned. Most importantly, the crew will no longer have to risk their lives in the dangerous environment. When assets and information become available online, the criminals also enter the digital arena. Attacks can be used for a lot of things, like gaining access to information and money, spreading propaganda and fear, stopping a nations critical infrastructure, and affecting elections. The maritime sector was isolated at sea, but ships are now interconnected with many devices and the shore. The communication and devices used have cyber vulnerabilities. Vessels should be robust against safety and security incidents that could occur. Measures need to be in place to ensure the integrity, availability, and confidentiality of data. Cyber security is an important part of autonomy. If the cyber security of these autonomous entities is not seriously considered, the consequences can potentially be major. This thesis will look at some of the challenges Yara Birkeland will face when it comes to cyber security. It is written in collaboration with Kongsberg Maritime.
This item contains part 1 of the master thesis. Part 2 contains confidential information and can not be made public.