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dc.contributor.authorBixby, Honoren_US
dc.contributor.authorBentham, Jamesen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Binen_US
dc.contributor.authorDi Cesare, Mariachiaraen_US
dc.contributor.authorPaciorek, Christopher J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBennett, James E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTaddei, Cristinaen_US
dc.contributor.authorStevens, Gretchen A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez-Martinez, Andreaen_US
dc.contributor.authorCarrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAndersen, Lars Boen_US
dc.contributor.authorAnderssen, Sigmund Alfreden_US
dc.contributor.authorEkelund, Ulfen_US
dc.contributor.authorKolle, Elinen_US
dc.contributor.authorSteene-Johannessen, Josteinen_US
dc.contributor.authorTarp, Jakoben_US
dc.contributor.authorAriansen, Ingeren_US
dc.contributor.authorBiehl, Anna Månssonen_US
dc.contributor.authorGraff-Iversen, Sidselen_US
dc.contributor.authorMeisfjord, Jørgen Rajanen_US
dc.contributor.authorBjertness, Espenen_US
dc.contributor.authorBjertness, Marius Bergsmarken_US
dc.contributor.authorMeyer, Haakon Een_US
dc.contributor.authorHaugsgjerd, Teresa Risanen_US
dc.contributor.authorTell, Grethe S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJanszky, Imreen_US
dc.contributor.authorKrokstad, Steinaren_US
dc.contributor.authorLaugsand, Lars Eriken_US
dc.contributor.authorSen, Abhijiten_US
dc.contributor.authorVatten, Lars Johanen_US
dc.contributor.authorMathiesen, Ellisiv B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWilsgaard, Tomen_US
dc.contributor.authorKhang, Young-Hoen_US
dc.contributor.authorSoric, Marojeen_US
dc.contributor.authorGregg, Edward W.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMiranda, J. Jaimeen_US
dc.contributor.authorBhutta, Zulfiqar A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSavin, Stefanen_US
dc.contributor.authorSophiea, Marisa K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorIurilli, Maria L. C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSolomon, Bethlehem D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCowan, Melanie J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRiley, Leanne M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDanaei, Goodarzen_US
dc.contributor.authorBovet, Pascalen_US
dc.contributor.authorChirita-Emandi, Adelaen_US
dc.contributor.authorHambleton, Ian Ren_US
dc.contributor.authorHayes, Alison Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorIkeda, Nayuen_US
dc.contributor.authorKengne, Andre Pen_US
dc.contributor.authorLaxmaiah, Avulaen_US
dc.PublishedBixby H, Bentham J, Zhou B, Di Cesare M, Paciorek CJ, Bennett JE, Taddei C, Stevens GA, Rodriguez-Martinez, Carrillo-Larco RM, Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Ekelund U, Kolle E, Steene-Johannessen J, Tarp J, Ariansen I, Biehl A, Graff-Iversen S, Meisfjord JR, Bjertness E, Bjertness MB, Meyer HE, Haugsgjerd TR, Tell GST, Janszky I, Krokstad SK, Laugsand LE, Sen A, Vatten LJ, Mathiesen EB, Wilsgaard T, Khang Y, Soric M, Gregg, Miranda JJ, Bhutta ZA, Savin S, Sophiea, Iurilli, Solomon, Cowan MJ, Riley LM, Danaei G, Bovet P, Chirita-Emandi A, Hambleton IR, Hayes AJ, Ikeda N, Kengne AP, Laxmaiah A. Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults. Nature. 2019;569:260-264eng
dc.description.abstractBody-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3,4,5,6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing—and in some countries reversal—of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.en_US
dc.publisherSpringer Natureeng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.titleRising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adultsen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2019 The Author(s)

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