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dc.contributor.authorHeinze, Christoph
dc.contributor.authorEyring, Veronika
dc.contributor.authorFriedlingstein, Pierre
dc.contributor.authorJones, Colin
dc.contributor.authorBalkanski, Yves
dc.contributor.authorCollins, William
dc.contributor.authorFichefet, Thierry
dc.contributor.authorGao, Shuang
dc.contributor.authorHall, Alex
dc.contributor.authorIvanova, Detelina
dc.contributor.authorKnorr, Wolfgang
dc.contributor.authorKnutti, Reto
dc.contributor.authorLöw, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorPonater, Michael
dc.contributor.authorSchultz, Martin G.
dc.contributor.authorSchulz, Michael
dc.contributor.authorSiebesma, Pier
dc.contributor.authorTeixeira, Joao
dc.contributor.authorTselioudis, George
dc.contributor.authorVancoppenolle, Martin
dc.PublishedHeinze C, Eyring V, Friedlingstein P, Jones, Balkanski Y, Collins, Fichefet T, Gao S, Hall A, Ivanova D, Knorr, Knutti R, Löw, Ponater M, Schultz MG, Schulz M, Siebesma, Teixeira, Tselioudis, Vancoppenolle M. ESD Reviews: Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and prospects for their evaluation. Earth System Dynamics. 2019;10(3):379-452eng
dc.description.abstractEarth system models (ESMs) are key tools for providing climate projections under different scenarios of human-induced forcing. ESMs include a large number of additional processes and feedbacks such as biogeochemical cycles that traditional physical climate models do not consider. Yet, some processes such as cloud dynamics and ecosystem functional response still have fairly high uncertainties. In this article, we present an overview of climate feedbacks for Earth system components currently included in state-of-the-art ESMs and discuss the challenges to evaluate and quantify them. Uncertainties in feedback quantification arise from the interdependencies of biogeochemical matter fluxes and physical properties, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of processes, and the lack of long-term continuous observational data to constrain them. We present an outlook for promising approaches that can help to quantify and to constrain the large number of feedbacks in ESMs in the future. The target group for this article includes generalists with a background in natural sciences and an interest in climate change as well as experts working in interdisciplinary climate research (researchers, lecturers, and students). This study updates and significantly expands upon the last comprehensive overview of climate feedbacks in ESMs, which was produced 15 years ago (NRC, 2003).en_US
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.titleESD Reviews: Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and prospects for their evaluationen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2019 The Authorsen_US
dc.source.journalEarth System Dynamics
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 295046
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 229771
dc.relation.projectEC/H2020: 641816
dc.relation.projectEC/FP7: 312979

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