• Distribution of energetic oxygen and hydrogen in the near-Earth plasma sheet 

      Kronberg, Elena A.; Grigorenko, Elena; Haaland, Stein; Daly, Patrick W.; Delcourt, Dominique C.; Luo, Hao; Kistler, Lynn M.; Dandouras, Iannis (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015-05)
      The spatial distributions of different ion species are useful indicators for plasma sheet dynamics. In this statistical study based on 7 years of Cluster observations, we establish the spatial distributions of oxygen ions ...
    • Solar illumination control of ionospheric outflow above polar cap arcs 

      Maes, Lukas; Maggiolo, Romain; De Keyser, Johan; Dandouras, Iannis; Fear, Robert C.; Fontaine, Dominique; Haaland, Stein (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015-03-12)
      We measure the flux density, composition, and energy of outflowing ions above the polar cap, accelerated by quasi-static electric fields parallel to the magnetic field and associated with polar cap arcs, using Cluster. ...
    • Suprathermal Fe in the Earth's Plasma Environment: Cluster RAPID Observations 

      Haaland, Stein; Daly, Patrick W.; Vilenius, Esa; Krcelic, Patrik; Dandouras, Iannis (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Baryonic matter in geospace is almost exclusively in a plasma state, with protons (H +) and to some extent ionized helium (He) and oxygen (O) being the dominant ion species. But also other heavier ion species and even ...