Leukocyte transmigration into tissue-engineered constructs is influenced by endothelial cells through Toll-like receptor signaling
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Introduction Inflammation plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration, wound healing, and the success of tissue-engineered constructs. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) on leukocyte transmigration when co-cultured with primary human bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs). Methods MSCs with and without ECs were cultured in poly (L-lactide-co-1, 5-dioxepan-2-one) (poly (LLA-co-DXO)) scaffolds for 1 week in vitro in a bioreactor system, after which they were implanted subcutaneously in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. After 1 and 3 weeks, scaffolds were retrieved, and the mRNA expression of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), HIF-1β, and mammalian target of rapamycin was examined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, immunofluorescent staining was performed for IL-1β, IL-6, neutrophils, and CD11b. In addition, Western blotting was done for IL-1β and IL-6. Leukocyte transmigration genes and genes in Toll-like receptor pathways, expressed by MSCs cultured in vitro with or without ECs, were further investigated with a microarray dataset. Results In vitro, genes involved in leukocyte transmigration and Toll-like receptor pathways were clearly influenced by the addition of ECs. Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and cadherin-5 (CDH5), both genes involved in leukocyte transmigration, were expressed significantly higher in the MSC/EC group. In vivo, the MSC/EC group showed higher mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1α and HIF-1β. The mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 showed no significant difference, whereas the mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in the MSC/EC group. The quantitative analysis of immunofluorescent staining revealed a significant difference in the number of neutrophils migrating into constructs, with the highest density found in the MSC/EC group. The number of macrophages positive for IL-6 and CD11b was significantly reduced in the MSC/EC group. Conclusions The recruitment of leukocytes into tissue-engineered constructs with MSCs is strongly influenced by the addition of ECs via activation of leukocyte transmigration and Toll-like receptor pathways.
JournalStem Cell Research & Therapy
CopyrightCopyright 2014 Bartaula-Brevik et al.; licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Sushma Bartaula-Brevik et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.