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dc.contributor.authorEldevik, Toreng
dc.contributor.authorRisebrobakken, Bjørgeng
dc.contributor.authorBjune, Anne Elisabetheng
dc.contributor.authorAndersson, Carineng
dc.contributor.authorBirks, Harry John Betteleyeng
dc.contributor.authorDokken, Trond Martineng
dc.contributor.authorDrange, Helgeeng
dc.contributor.authorGlessmer, Mirjam Sophiaeng
dc.contributor.authorLi, Camilleeng
dc.contributor.authorNilsen, Jan Even Øieeng
dc.contributor.authorOtterå, Odd Helgeeng
dc.contributor.authorRichter, Kristineng
dc.contributor.authorSkagseth, Øysteineng
dc.description.abstractThe understanding of climate and climate change is fundamentally concerned with two things: a well-defined and sufficiently complete climate record to be explained, for example of observed temperature, and a relevant mechanistic framework for making closed and consistent inferences concerning cause-and-effect. This is the case for understanding observed climate, as it is the case for historical climate as reconstructed from proxy data and future climate as projected by models. The present study offers a holistic description of northern maritime climate – from the Last Glacial Maximum through to the projected global warming of the 21st century – in this context. It includes the compilation of the most complete temperature record for Norway and the Norwegian Sea to date based on the synthesis of available terrestrial and marine paleoclimate reconstructions into continuous times series, and their continuation into modern and future climate with the instrumental record and a model projection. The scientific literature on a variable northern climate is reviewed against this background, and with a particular emphasis on the role of the Norwegian Atlantic Current – the Gulf Stream's extension towards the Arctic. This includes the introduction of an explicit and relatively simple diagnostic relation to quantify the change in ocean circulation consistent with reconstructed ocean temperatures. It is found that maritime climate and the strength of the Norwegian Atlantic Current are closely related throughout the record. The nature of the relation is however qualitatively different as one progresses from the past, through the present, and into the future.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs CC BY-NC-NDeng
dc.subjectNorth Atlanticeng
dc.subjectNordic seaseng
dc.subjectand Arcticeng
dc.titleA brief history of climate – the northern seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to global warmingen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND licenseen_US
dc.source.journalQuaternary Science Reviews

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