• Costs and expected gain in lifetime health from intensive care versus general ward care of 30,712 individual patients: A distribution-weighted cost-effectiveness analysis 

      Lindemark, Frode; Haaland, Øystein Ariansen; Kvåle, Reidar; Flaatten, Hans; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Johansson, Kjell Arne (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-08-21)
      Background: Clinicians, hospital managers, policy makers, and researchers are concerned about high costs, increased demand, and variation in priorities in the intensive care unit (ICU). The objectives of this modelling ...
    • Country contextualisation of cost-effectiveness studies: lessons from Ethiopia 

      Johansson, Kjell Arne; Tolla, Mieraf Taddesse; Memirie, Solomon Tessema; Miljeteig, Ingrid; Habtemariam, Mahlet; Woldemariam, Addis Tamire; Verguet, Stéphane; Norheim, Ole Frithjof (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      Emerging demographic, epidemiological and health system changes in low-income countries require revisions of national essential health services packages in accordance with standard healthcare priority setting methods. ...
    • The Devils in the DALY: Prevailing Evaluative Assumptions 

      Solberg, Carl Tollef; Sørheim, Preben; Muller, Karl Erik; Gamlund, Espen; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Barra, Mathias (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      In recent years, it has become commonplace among the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study authors to regard the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) primarily as a descriptive health metric. During the first phase of the ...
    • The disvalue of death in the global burden of disease 

      Solberg, Carl Tollef; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Barra, Mathias (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018)
      In the Global Burden of Disease study, disease burden is measured as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The paramount assumption of the DALY is that it makes sense to aggregate years lived with disability (YLDs) and ...
    • Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania 

      Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George M.; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Robberstad, Bjarne (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-08-11)
      Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article ...
    • Equity impact analysis of medical approaches to cardiovascular diseases prevention in Tanzania 

      Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Ruhago, Georg Mugambage; Mori, Amani Thomas; Robberstad, Bjarne; Norheim, Ole Frithjof (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016-12)
      Primary medical prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has received low priority in Tanzania, despite evidence of the rising prevalence of CVD risk factors. Different guidelines have been proposed for medical CVD ...
    • Equity implications of coverage and use of insecticide treated nets distributed for free or with co-payment in two districts in Tanzania: A cross-sectional comparative household survey 

      Ruhago, George M.; Mujinja, Phares G. M.; Norheim, Ole Frithjof (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2011-07-21)
      Background: In Tanzania, the distribution and coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is inequitable. Arguments about the most effective and equitable approach to distributing ITNs centre around whether to provide ITNs ...
    • Estimating health adjusted age at death (HAAD) 

      Johansson, Kjell Arne; Økland, Jan-Magnus; Skaftun, Eirin Krüger; Bukhman, Gene; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Coates, Matthew M.; Haaland, Øystein Ariansen (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-07-14)
      Objectives: At any point in time, a person’s lifetime health is the number of healthy life years they are expected to experience during their lifetime. In this article we propose an equity-relevant health metric, Health ...
    • Ethical priority setting for universal health coverage: challenges in deciding upon fair distribution of health services 

      Norheim, Ole Frithjof (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016-05-11)
      Priority setting is inevitable on the path towards universal health coverage. All countries experience a gap between their population’s health needs and what is economically feasible for governments to provide. Can priority ...
    • Financial risk protection at the bedside: How Ethiopian physicians try to minimize out-of-pocket health expenditures 

      Miljeteig, Ingrid; Defaye, Frehiwot Berhane; Wakim, Paul; Desalegn, Dawit; Berhane, Yemane; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Danis, Marion (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019-02-12)
      Background: Out-of-pocket health expenditures can pose major financial risks, create access-barriers and drive patients and families into poverty. Little is known about physicians’ role in financial protection of patients ...
    • Further benefits by early start of HIV treatment in low income countries: Survival estimates of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy 

      Johansson, Kjell Arne; Robberstad, Bjarne; Norheim, Ole Frithjof (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2010-01-16)
      Background International HIV guidelines have recently shifted from a medium-late to an early-start treatment strategy. As a consequence, more people will be eligible to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). We ...
    • Generalised cost-effectiveness analysis of 159 health interventions for the Ethiopian essential health service package 

      Eregata, Getachew Teshome; Hailu, Alemayehu; Stenberg, Karin; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Bertram, Melanie Y. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021-01-06)
      Background: Cost effectiveness was a criterion used to revise Ethiopia’s essential health service package (EHSP) in 2019. However, there are few cost-effectiveness studies from Ethiopia or directly transferable evidence ...
    • Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 

      Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Afshin, Ashkan; Alexander, Lily T.; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Bjertness, Espen; Htet, Aung Soe; Savic, Miloje; Vollset, Stein Emil; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Weiderpass, Elisabete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016-10)
      Background: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and ...
    • Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 

      Gakidou, Emmanuela; Afshin, Ashkan; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Komal; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Ansari, Hossein; Anto, Josep M.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arian, Nicholas; Arnlov, Johan; Artaman, A.; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Kisa, Adnan; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Vollset, Stein Emil; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Weiderpass, Elisabete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-09)
      METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), ...
    • Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 

      Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bjertness, Espen; Hailu, Alemayehu; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Savic, Miloje; Skirbekk, Vegard; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Søreide, Kjetil; Vollset, Stein Emil; Weiderpass, Elisabete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016-10)
      Background: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system ...
    • Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 

      Hay, Simon I.; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Hailu, Alemayehu; Htet, Aung Soe; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kisa, Adnan; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Skirbekk, Vegard Fykse; Vollset, Stein Emil; Weiderpass, Elisabete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-09)
      METHODS: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 ...
    • Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 

      James, Spencer L; Abate, Degu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abay, Solomon M.; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasi, Nooshin; Abbastabar, Hedayat; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdela, Jemal; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Abebe, Zegeye; Abera, Semaw F; Abil, Olifan Zewdie; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Kisa, Adnan; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Steiner, Timothy J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018-11)
      Background: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries ...
    • Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 

      Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allen, Christine; Vollset, Stein Emil; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Hailu, Alemayehu; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Bjertness, Espen; Htet, Aung Soe; Søreide, Kjetil; Weiderpass, Elisabete; White, Richard; Krog, Norun Hjertager (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016-10)
      Background: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a ...
    • Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 

      Wang, Haidong; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O.; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibthiel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aiyar, Sneha; Akanda, Shafqat; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alabed, Samer; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldridge, Robert William; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Aljunid, Syed M.; Alkaabi, Juma M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allam, Shalini D.; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Anber, Nahla; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Androudi, Sofia; Ansari, Hossein; Ansha, Mustafa Geleto; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlöv, Johan; Arora, Megha; Al Artaman, A.; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Asayesh, Hamid; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Assadi, Reza; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Atre, Sachin R.; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Babalola, Tesleem Kayode; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Barac, Aleksandra; Barber, Ryan M.; Barboza, Miguel A.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Htet, Aung Soe; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Vollset, Stein Emil; Weiderpass, Elisabete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-09)
      Background: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause ...
    • Guidance on priority setting in health care (GPS-Health): the inclusion of equity criteria not captured by cost-effectiveness analysis 

      Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Baltussen, Rob; Johri, Mira; Chisholm, Dan; Nord, Erik; Brock, Dan W.; Carlsson, Per; Cookson, Richard; Daniels, Norman; Danis, Marion; Fleurbaey, Marc; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Kapiriri, Lydia; Littlejohns, Peter; Mbeeli, Thomas; Rao, Krishna D.; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Wikler, Dan (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-08-29)
      This Guidance for Priority Setting in Health Care (GPS-Health), initiated by the World Health Organization, offers a comprehensive map of equity criteria that are relevant to health care priority setting and should be ...