Cost-Effectiveness of Saxagliptin Compared With Glibenclamide as a Second-Line Therapy Added to Metformin for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ethiopia
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonMedical Decision Making Policy & Practice. 2021, 6 (1), 1-12 10.1177/23814683211005771.
Background. Metformin is a widely accepted first-line pharmacotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment of T2DM with glibenclamide, saxagliptin, or one of the other second-line treatment agents is recommended when the first-line treatment (metformin) cannot control the disease. However, there is little evidence on the additional cost and cost-effectiveness of adding second-line drugs. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of saxagliptin and glibenclamide as second-line therapies added to metformin compared with metformin only in T2DM in Ethiopia. Methods. This cost-effectiveness study was conducted in Ethiopia using a mix of primary data on cost and best available data from the literature on the effectiveness. We measured the interventions’ cost from the providers’ perspective in 2019 US dollars. We developed a Markov model for T2DM disease progression with five health states using TreeAge Pro 2020 software. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) was the health outcome used in this study, and we calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per DALY averted. Furthermore, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed. Results. The annual unit cost per patient was USD 70 for metformin, USD 75 for metformin + glibenclamide, and USD 309 for metformin + saxagliptin. The ICER for saxagliptin + metformin was USD 2259 per DALY averted. The ICER results were sensitive to various changes in cost, effectiveness, and transition probabilities. The ICER was driven primarily by the higher cost of saxagliptin relative to glibenclamide. Conclusion. Our study revealed that saxagliptin is not a cost-effective second-line therapy in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy based on a gross domestic product per capita per DALY averted willingness-to-pay threshold in Ethiopia (USD 953).