Bananas of the Caribbean - Ein studie av bergenske skip i den amerikanske fruktfarten 1886-1911
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- Master theses 
From 1886 to 1911, The Norwegian shipowners Bergh & Helland sent three ships, the SS Bergenseren, SS Alert, and SS Simon Dumois, to the American fruit trade. Bergh & Helland were Norwegian pioneers in this trade, as they were some of the first shipowners to sends ships to the American fruit trade, but also the earliest known participants from Bergen, a city renowned for its participation in the American fruit trade. They were also amongst the first shipowners to build a ship especially designed for the American fruit trade, when the SS Simon Dumois was built in May 1890. During their time in the American fruit trade, these ships saw several new captains take command. Several of these captains received their first captaincies aboard these ships, as they were experienced first mates in the American fruit trade, and they were sometimes chosen from within other ships owned by Bergh & Helland. Norwegian shipowners mainly sent ships to the American fruit trade through timecharters, which were negotiated through Norwegian and American shipbrokers. This was one of the first shipping trades which saw Norwegian shipowners using external shipbrokers, whereas before, this job would have largely been done by the ship’s captain. The American fruit trade was a lucrative business for Norwegian ships. The SS Bergenseren and SS Alert saw their biggest turnovers whilst participating in the American fruit trade. These ships weren’t built for the fruit trade, and therefore spent several years outside the American fruit trade for comparison. The SS Simon Dumois meanwhile continued for several more years than the other two, spending 21 years in the trade. Each ship participated in the American fruit trade for as long as it was possible to get timecharters with acceptable terms. The shipowners Bergh & Helland saw good returns from their investments, though the returns diminished when the ships got older and less suited for the trade. These ships and shipowners were pioneers of their time and they were at the forefront of innovation within Norwegian shipping and the American fruit trade.