• Earth science – oceanography 

      Johannessen, Johnny A.; Sandven, Stein; Durand, Dominique (Chapter, 2002)
      Satellite oceanography began with the Gemini XII flight in November 1966. From a Hasselblad camera mounted in the pilot’s window large internal waves in the eastern tropical Atlantic were photographed via sunglitter for ...
    • An ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar image of atmospheric lee waves 

      Vachon, P. W.; Johannessen, Ola M.; Johannessen, Johnny A. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 1994-11-15)
      An ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of the island Hopen shows a distinct 7.6-km wavelength wave phenomenon near the island. This wave phenomenon is interpreted as the surface imprint on open water of atmospheric ...
    • Evaluating Global Ocean Carbon Models: The Importance of Realistic Physics 

      Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, K.; Caldeira, Ken; Campin, J. M.; Drange, Helge; Dutay, J. C.; Follows, M.; Gao, Yongqi; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gruber, N.; Ishida, A.; Joos, Fortunat; Madec, G.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Marshall, J. C.; Matear, R. J.; Monfray, P.; Mouchet, A.; Najjar, R.; Orr, J. C.; Plattner, G. K.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Schlitzer, R.; Slater, R.; Totterdell, I. J.; Weirig, M. F.; Yamanaka, Y.; Yool, A. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2004-09-15)
      A suite of standard ocean hydrographic and circulation metrics are applied to the equilibrium physical solutions from 13 global carbon models participating in phase 2 of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project ...
    • Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics 

      Matsumoto, K.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Key, R. M.; Aumont, O.; Bullister, J. L.; Caldeira, Ken; Campin, J. M.; Doney, S. C.; Drange, Helge; Dutay, J. C.; Follows, M.; Gao, Yongqi; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gruber, N.; Ishida, A.; Joos, Fortunat; Lindsay, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Marshall, J. C.; Matear, R. J.; Monfray, P.; Mouchet, A.; Najjar, R.; Plattner, G. K.; Schlitzer, R.; Slater, R.; Swathi, P. S.; Totterdell, I. J.; Weirig, M. F.; Yamanaka, Y.; Yool, A.; Orr, J. C. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2004-04-02)
      New radiocarbon and chlorofluorocarbon-11 data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment are used to assess a suite of 19 ocean carbon cycle models. We use the distributions and inventories of these tracers as quantitative ...
    • Formulation of the planetary boundary layer feedback in the Earth´s climate system 

      Esau, Igor N. (Journal article, 2008)
      Recent publications have revealed that the state-of-the-art climate models are probably not sensitive enough to observed changes in the surface air temperature. This fact calls for the search of feedback mechanisms making ...
    • Future climate change: Modeling and scenarios for the Arctic 

      Kattsov, Vladimir M.; Källén, Erland; Cattle, Howard P.; Christensen, Jens; Drange, Helge; Hanssen-Bauer, Inger; Jóhannesen, Tómas; Karol, Igor; Räisänen, Jount; Svensson, Gunilla; Vavulin, Stanislav (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) Scientific Report;, Chapter, 2005-09)
    • Greenland Ice Sheet Elevation Ehange in Winter and Influence of Atmospheric Teleconnections in the Northern Hemisphere 

      Chen, Lin-Ling; Johannessen, Ola M.; Khvorostovsky, Kirill; Wang, Huijun (Journal article, 2009-11-16)
    • Greenland Sea Odden sea ice feature: Intra-annual and interannual variability 

      Shuchman, Robert A.; Josberger, Edward G.; Russel, Catherine A.; Fischer, Kenneth W.; Johannessen, Ola M.; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Gloersen, Per (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 1998-06-15)
      The “Odden” is a large sea ice feature that forms in the east Greenland Sea that may protrude eastward to 5 °E from the main sea ice pack (at about 8 °W) between 73° and 77 °N. It generally forms at the beginning of the ...
    • Heat and Mass Transfer Laws for Turbulent Convective Flows in the Atmosphere over Leads in Ice Covered Oceans, C32A-1123, American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting, 5-9 December, San-Francisco, USA 

      Esau, Igor N.; Zilitinkevich, Sergej S. (Conference object, 2005)
      Patches of open water (cracks, leads and polynias, Figure 1) in theice cover give major contributions to turbulent exchanges of heat, moisture, CO2 and other gases between the atmosphere and Polar oceans. Here, convective ...
    • Heat in the Barents Sea: Transport, storage, and surface fluxes 

      Smedsrud, Lars Henrik; Ingvaldsen, Randi; Nilsen, Jan Even Øie; Skagseth, Øystein (Journal article, 2010-01-11)
      A column model is set up for the Barents Sea to explore sensitivity of surface fluxes and heat storage from varying ocean heat transport. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force the ...
    • Hurricane-driven alteration in plankton community size structure in the Gulf of Mexico: A modeling study 

      Gierach, Michelle M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Samuelsen, Annette; Ueyoshi, Kyozo (Journal article, 2009-04-03)
      This was the first study to analyze phytoplankton and zooplankton community size structure during hurricane passage. A three-dimensional biophysical model was used to assess ecosystem dynamics, plankton biomass, and plankton ...
    • A Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model for shelf sea simulation 

      Winther, Nina Gjerde; Evensen, Geir (Journal article, 2006-03-03)
      The general circulation in the North Sea and Skagerrak is simulated using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Although HYCOM was originally de- veloped for simulations of the open ocean, it has a design which should ...
    • The impact of ensemble filter definition on the assimilation of temperature profiles in the tropical Pacific 

      Leeuwenburgh, O.; Evensen, Geir; Bertino, Laurent (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2005-10)
      The traditional analysis scheme in the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) uses a stochastic perturbation or randomization of the measurements which ensures a correct variance in the updated ensemble. An alternative so called ...
    • Indian Ocean: Validation of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model and ENSO events during 1958–1998 

      Haugen, Vibeke E.; Johannessen, Ola M.; Evensen, Geir (Journal article, 2002-05-25)
      In the Indian Ocean, in situ data are sparse both in time and space. Therefore, numerical models are one of the major tools for further understanding of the ocean circulation. We have implemented, validated, and done a 40 ...
    • Influence of horizontal model grid resolution on the simulated primary production in an embedded primary production model in the Norwegian Sea 

      Hansen, Cecilie; Samuelsen, Annette (Journal article, 2009)
      The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of horizontal grid resolution in a physical model on an embedded primary production model. The area for the experiment was along the west coast of Norway, from 60◦N ...
    • The Influence of large convective eddies on the surface-layer turbulence 

      Zilitinkevich, Sergej S.; Hunt, J.C.R; Esau, Igor N.; Grachev, A.A.; Lalas, D.P; Akylas, M.; Joffre, S.M. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2006-06)
      Close to the surface large coherent eddies consisting of plumes and downdraughts cause convergent winds blowing towards the plume axes, which in turn cause wind shears and generation of turbulence. This mechanism strongly ...
    • An intercomparison between the surface heat flux feedback in five coupled models, COADS and the NCEP reanalysis 

      Frankignoul, C.; Kestenare, E.; Botzet, M.; Carril, A. F.; Drange, Helge; Pardaens, A.; Terray, L.; Sutton, R. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2004-04)
      The surface heat flux feedback is estimated in the Atlantic and the extra-tropical Indo-Pacific, using monthly heat flux and sea surface temperature anomaly data from control simulations with five global climate models, ...
    • An intercomparison of large-eddy simulations of the stable boundary layer 

      Beare, Robert J.; MacVean, Malcolm K.; Holtslag, Albert A. M.; Cuxart, Joan; Esau, Igor N.; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Jimenez, Maria A.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Kosovic, Branko; Lewellen, David; Lund, Thomas S.; Lindquist, Julie K.; McCabe, Anne; Moene, Arnold F.; Noh, Yign; Raasch, Siegfried; Sullivan, Peter (Journal article, 2005)
      Results are presented from the first intercomparison of Large-eddy simulation (LES) models for the stable boundary layer (SBL), as part of the GABLS (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Atmospheric Boundary Layer ...
    • Inverse Methods and Data Assimilation in Nonlinear Ocean Models 

      Evensen, Geir (Journal article, 1994-10-01)
      An overview is given of the current status of inverse methods and data assimilation for nonlinear ocean models. The inverse theory for time dependent dynamical models is formulated and the most promising solution methods ...
    • Last Glacial Maximum over China: Sensitivities of climate to paleovegetation and Tibetan ice sheet 

      Jiang, Dabang; Wang, Huijun; Drange, Helge; Lang, Xianmei (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2003-02-06)
      With the boundary conditions appropriate for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), including ice sheets, sea surface temperatures, sea-ice distribution, atmospheric CO2 concentration, the Earth’s orbital parameters, topography, ...