Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Increased mortality from fishing is expected to favor faster life histories, realized through earlier maturation, increased reproductive investment, and reduced postmaturation growth. There is also direct and indirect selection on behavioral traits. Molecular genetic methods have so far contributed minimally to understanding such fisheries-induced evolution (FIE), but a large body of literature studying evolution using phenotypic methods has suggested that FIE in life-history traits, in particular maturation traits, is commonplace in exploited fish populations. Although no phenotypic study in the wild can individually provide conclusive evidence for FIE, the observed common pattern suggests a common explanation, strengthening the case for FIE. This interpretation is supported by theoretical and experimental studies. Evidence for FIE of behavioral traits is limited from the wild, but strong from experimental studies. We suggest that such evolution is also common, but has so far been overlooked.