«My Spelling is Wobbly» – Causes and consequences of word-level disfluencies in written
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The aim of this PhD-project was to explore word-level processes involved in writing, and in particular word-level disfluencies. I have investigate what predicts word-level processes and disfluencies, and how word-level disfluencies can influence aspects of the final text. Two broad questions were addressed; What are the causes of wordlevel disfluency in written production?, and What, if any, are the consequences of word-level disfluency when the writer is composing full text? Article 1 investigates the writing process and the written product of a group of dyslexic students and a group of control students. Results from this article indicate that students diagnosed with dyslexia have a word-level focus when writing, and that this word-level focus is related to the writing process and not them struggling to read what they have written. Article 2 is an investigation of the spelling process and spelling accuracy in a group of 6th graders. Results indicate that the spelling process persists beyond typing onset. Moreover, word-split performance and non-word spelling accuracy predict spelling accuracy. Spelling response latency was predicted by non-word spelling response latency, and by key-finding speed. Keystroke intervals within words was predicted by word-split performance, non-word spelling RT and key finding speed. Article 3 investigates the relationship between spelling, motor execution processes involved in keyboarding, text composing processes and text quality measures. Results indicate that the transcription measures; copying, key finding and spelling, all influence word-level processes when producing text. Moreover, results indicate that word-level disfluencies have a negative impact on measures of text quality. Article 4 is a theoretical investigation of existing technical aids for writing support, and the general ideas underpinning these. A shift from having correction as the main element, to a writing aid having fluency as the main principle is suggested. My conclusion is that word-level disfluencies are related to spelling, and that wordlevel disfluencies can influence aspects of the final text.
Has partsPaper I: Torrance, M., Rønneberg, V., Johansson, C., & Uppstad, P. H. (2016). Adolescent Weak Decoders Writing in a Shallow Orthography: Process and Product. Scientific Studies of Reading, 20(5), 375–388. Full text not available in BORA due to publisher restrictions. The article is available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2016.1205071
Paper II: Rønneberg, V., & Torrance, M. (2017). Cognitive predictors of shallow-orthography spelling speed and accuracy in 6th grade children. Reading and Writing. The article is available at: http://hdl.handle.net/1956/17691
Paper III: Rønneberg, V. An investigation of the relationship between transcription, word-level processes and measures of quality in text composition. Full text not available in BORA.
Paper IV: Rønneberg, V., Johansson, C., Mossige, M., Torrance, M., & Uppstad, P.H. Why bother with writers? Towards “Good enough” technologies for supporting dyslexics. In Miller, B., McCardle, P., & Connelly, V. (Eds.). Writing development in struggling learners: Understanding the needs of writers across the lifecourse. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Full text not available in BORA.