Winter storms accelerate the demise of sea ice in the Atlantic Sector of the Arctic Ocean
Graham, Robert M.; Itkin, Polona; Meyer, Amelie; Sundfjord, Arild; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Liston, Glen E.; Cheng, Bin; Cohen, Lana; Divine, Dmitry; Fer, Ilker; Fransson, Agneta; Gerland, Sebastian; Haapala, Jari; Hudson, Stephen R.; Johansson, Malin; King, Jennifer A.; Merkouriadi, Ioanna; Peterson, Algot Kristoffer; Provost, Christine; Randelhoff, Achim; Rinke, Annette; Rösel, Anja; Sennechael, Nathalie; Walden, Von P.; Duarte, Pedro; Assmy, Philipp; Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats A.
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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- Geophysical Institute 
Original versionGraham RM, Itkin P, Meyer A, Sundfjord A, Spreen G, Smedsrud LH, Liston GE, Cheng B, Cohen L, Divine D, Fer I, Fransson A, Gerland S, Haapala J, Hudson SR, Johansson A M, King JA, Merkouriadi I, Peterson AK, Provost C, Randelhoff A, Rinke A, Rösel A, Sennechael N, Walden VP, Duarte P, Assmy P, Steen H, Granskog MA. Winter storms accelerate the demise of sea ice in the Atlantic Sector of the Arctic Ocean. Scientific Reports. 2019;9:9222 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45574-5
A large retreat of sea-ice in the ‘stormy’ Atlantic Sector of the Arctic Ocean has become evident through a series of record minima for the winter maximum sea-ice extent since 2015. Results from the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition, a five-month-long (Jan-Jun) drifting ice station in first and second year pack-ice north of Svalbard, showcase how sea-ice in this region is frequently affected by passing winter storms. Here we synthesise the interdisciplinary N-ICE2015 dataset, including independent observations of the atmosphere, snow, sea-ice, ocean, and ecosystem. We build upon recent results and illustrate the different mechanisms through which winter storms impact the coupled Arctic sea-ice system. These short-lived and episodic synoptic-scale events transport pulses of heat and moisture into the Arctic, which temporarily reduce radiative cooling and henceforth ice growth. Cumulative snowfall from each sequential storm deepens the snow pack and insulates the sea-ice, further inhibiting ice growth throughout the remaining winter season. Strong winds fracture the ice cover, enhance ocean-ice-atmosphere heat fluxes, and make the ice more susceptible to lateral melt. In conclusion, the legacy of Arctic winter storms for sea-ice and the ice-associated ecosystem in the Atlantic Sector lasts far beyond their short lifespan.